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    Right-wing and populist support for climate mitigation policies: Evidence from Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region
    Mahir YAZAR, Lukas HERMWILLE, Håvard HAARSTAD
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 281-293.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.001
    Abstract575)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (371KB)(55)       Save

    Research on environmental behaviour is often overlooked in literature on regime destabilization in energy transitions. This study addresses that gap by focusing on socio-political and demographic factors shaping support for carbon regime destabilization policies in one of the most carbon-intensive regions of Europe. Carbon-intensive industries, especially coal mining and coal-based power generation, are often concentrated in a few carbon-intensive regions. Therefore, decarbonization actions will affect those regions particularly strongly. Correspondingly, carbon-intensive regions often exert significant political influence on the two climate mitigation policies at the national level. Focusing on Poland, we investigate socio-political and demographic factors that correlate with the approval or rejection of the two climate mitigation policies: increasing taxes on fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal and using public money to subsidize renewable energy such as wind and solar power in Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region. Using logistic regression with individual-level data derived from the 2016 European Social Survey (ESS) and the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES), we find party-political ideology to be an important predictor at the national level but much less so at the regional level. Specifically, voting for right-wing party is not a divisive factor for individual support of the two climate mitigation policies either nationally or regionally. More interestingly, populism is a strong factor in support of increasing taxes on fossil fuel in the carbon-intensive Silesia region but is less important concerning in support of using public money to subsidize renewable energy in Poland overall. These results show the heterogeneity of right-wing party and populism within the support for the two climate mitigation policies. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, gender, education level, employment status, and employment sector, have even more complex and heterogeneous components in support of the two climate mitigation policies at the national and regional levels. Identifying the complex socio-political and demographic factors of climate mitigation policies across different national versus carbon-intensive regional contexts is an essential step for generating in situ decarbonization strategies.

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    Charging infrastructure planning for electric vehicle in India: Present status and future challenges
    Sulabh SACHAN, Praveen Prakash SINGH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 335-345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.008
    Abstract418)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (584KB)(165)       Save

    The challenge to deal with environmental contamination along with national goals such as energy security, reliability, and self-dependency due to depleting fossil fuel resources has motivated researchers to find an alternate solution in the transport sector. Due to this, electrification of the transport sector has become an achievable solution that has caught attention with increasing penetration in the market share. India is a participant in the Paris Agreement which aims to curtail the production of greenhouse gases and limit the escalating temperature. Public intervention and changes in policy and regulations are the key aspects of technological transition. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, the consumers’ frame of mind concerns about adapting to e-mobility is anxiety over charging times and driving range. Thus, the development of charging stations plays a crucial role in promoting electric vehicles (EVs). This study investigates to identify different barriers that exist in the Indian context related to the adoption of e-mobility. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the recent developments in charging infrastructure planning in India. Also, the status of installed charging stations is examined. Developing appropriate charging stations are associated with several challenges, which are also highlighted to provide guidance to public and private entities that can be adopted in their respective business model. As India has the second largest population and is the seventh largest country in the world, the EV adoption rate of India is considerably low compared to other countries; for India, there is a long way to match the growth rate of EV adoption. Hence it becomes essential to develop a robust and suitable charging infrastructure to promote the sale and use of EVs in India.

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    Post-displacement status of climate migrants in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh
    Syed Mahbubur RAHMAN, Mahreen MAMOON, Md Shamimul ISLAM, Saif HOSSAIN, Rezwanul HAQUE, Abul Bashar Md ZUBAIR
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 183-187.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.002
    Abstract411)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (331KB)(43)       Save

    Some big cities in Bangladesh have been experiencing a massive and rapid influx of rural people due to the impacts of climate change, and therefore the urban administration encounters enormous challenges. This study aims to investigate the drivers of climate-induced migration and the post-displacement status of the migrants living in the urban slum of Rajshahi City. Using a semi-structured questionnaire survey, this study conducted interviews with 50 migrants residing in two slums in Rajshahi City. An interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach was implemented to evaluate the survey data. This study finds that food insecurity and flood are the two significant climate drivers of migration. Among the non-climate drivers, lack of alternative livelihood is the major reason. It should be noticed that the climate migrants in many cases do not get the opportunity to improve their living standards; they are usually occupied with low-pay professions like maid, van and rickshaw puller, and scrap collector. The study also reveals that migrants, especially females and children, need several basic physiological, economic, social, and health services. Most children have no chance to attend school. Compared to males, females have more opportunities for some support and allowances. Overall, an inadequate level of change has taken place in the lives of migrants, which raises the concern if migration is ever a way to resolve a problem or the beginning of many other problems. Further researches may concentrate on the impact of migration on the dynamics of social capital among slum dwellers.

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    Nexus between selected macroeconomic variables and carbon emission in Kenya
    James NJUMWA, Ernest SAINA, Alfred SEREM
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 233-243.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.003
    Abstract344)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (419KB)(36)       Save

    Agriculture is not only influenced by climate change, but it is also one of the significant contributors of CO2 emission. Understanding CO2 emission and macroeconomic variables is critical to solving the challenges and threats faced by Kenya’s agriculture and environment. This study used the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and the autoregressive distribution lag model (ADLM) to analyze the relationships of CO2 emission with agricultural output, government direct investment, trade openness, and inflation rate in Kenya from 1983 to 2019. The study found that there exists a positive (direct) relationship between CO2 emission and foreign direct investment in the long run in Kenya. Additionally, CO2 emission and trade openness have a negative (indirect) and statistically significant relationship after the error correction term adjustment in the long run. Moreover, the relationship between CO2 emission and agricultural output is positive (direct) and statistically significant in the long run. There is a positive (direct) and statistically insignificant relationship between CO2 emission and inflation rate in the short run. Notably, the EKC hypothesis indicated that the Kenya’s economy is still on the environmental degradation trade-off through the gradual increase of both CO2 emission and agricultural output. Our results are important to Kenya’s economy because the derived insights will assist in relevant departments to formulate sustainable strategies to minimize environmental degradation.

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    Regional characteristics and spatiotemporal differentiation of the prevalence of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Xinjiang, China
    MA Chen, WANG Hongwei, XIE Ling, YI Suyan, TAN Bo
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 208-222.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.001
    Abstract315)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (2993KB)(10)       Save

    In recent years, the number of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases in China has continued to grow, and the disease has become a serious public health issue. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in the arid areas of Northwest China, where the epidemiological trend of HFMD is gradually increasing and characterized by geographical heterogeneity. In this study, based on the HFMD case data in all counties and cities in Xinjiang, we employed statistical and GIS spatial analyses, and geographic probe models to characterize the spatiotemporal differentiation of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang during the period of 2009-2018, and quantitatively analyzed the factors influencing the spatial differentiation of HFMD epidemics. The results showed that HFMD incidence rate in Xinjiang had non-stationary temporal characteristics on the interannual and monthly scales, and the monthly variation characteristics of HFMD epidemic were quite different in southern and northern Xinjiang. The spatial distribution characteristics of HFMD epidemics showed a north-south spatial differentiation pattern with the Tianshan Mountains as the boundary; cold spot and hot spot of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang have shifted from scattered to concentrated, and the spatial differentiation pattern had gradually stabilized. Moreover, the dominant factors influencing the spatial differentiation of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang were socioeconomic factors, such as per capita GDP and urbanization rate, while the basic factors affecting its spatial differentiation were natural environmental factors. The spatial differentiation and evolution patterns of HFMD epidemics differed between northern and southern Xinjiang. Specifically, the leading role of socioeconomic factors is more obvious in southern Xinjiang than in northern Xinjiang, while natural environmental factors (e.g., dryness and relative humidity) contribute to the prevalence of HFMD epidemics in northern Xinjiang, and the perturbing effect of these factors was more prominent than other factors. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the prevention of HFMD epidemics and early warning of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang.

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    Exploring the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of game model on the protection of traditional villages
    LI Jiaqi, JIN Tao, XIANG Wei, HUANG Qinzhen
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 188-207.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.003
    Abstract312)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (1942KB)(41)       Save

    With the rapid improvement of urbanization and industrialization in countries around the world, how to effectively solve the rapid demise of traditional villages is a social dilemma faced by all countries, which is why a series of relevant protection regulations have been promulgated in different historical periods. However, the formulation of relevant policies is still not scientific, universal, and long-term. In this study, we constructed an evolutionary game model of local governments and residents based on the evolutionary game theory (EGT), which is used to explore the evolutionary stability strategy (ESS) and stability conditions of stakeholders under the premise of mutual influence and restriction. Besides, the study also includes the analysis about the impacts of different influence factors on the evolution tendency of the game model. At the same time, numerical simulation examples were used to verify the theoretical results and three crucial conclusions have been drawn. Firstly, the strategic evolution of stakeholders is a dynamic process of continuous adjustment and optimization, and its results and speed show consistent interdependence. Secondly, the decision-making of stakeholders mainly depends on the basic cost, and the high cost of investment is not conducive to the protection of traditional villages. Thirdly, the dynamic evolutionary mechanism composed of different influence factors will have an impact on the direction and speed of decision-making of stakeholders, which provides the basis for them to effectively restrict the decision-making of each other. This study eliminates the weaknesses of existing research approaches and provides scientific and novel ideas for the protection of traditional villages, which can contribute to the formulation and improvement of the relevant laws and regulations.

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    Spatial variability and driving factors of soil multifunctionality in drylands of China
    ZHANG Shihang, CHEN Yusen, LU Yongxing, GUO Hao, GUO Xing, LIU Chaohong, ZHOU Xiaobing, ZHANG Yuanming
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 223-232.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.001
    Abstract310)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1310KB)(152)       Save

    Drylands are highly vulnerable to climate change and human activities. The drylands of China account for approximately 10.8% of global drylands, and China is the country most severely affected by aridity in Asia. Therefore, studying the spatial variation characteristics in soil multifunctionality (SMF) and investigating the driving factors are critical for elucidating and managing the functions of dryland ecosystems in China. Based on the environmental factors (mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), solar radiation (Srad), soil acidity (pH), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and aridity from the Dataset of soil properties for land surface modeling over China, we used non-linear regression, ordinary least square (OLS) regression, structural equation model (SEM), and other analytical methods to investigate the relationships of SMF with environmental factors across different aridity levels in China. SMF in different dryland regions varied significantly and showed a patchy distribution, with SMF index values ranging from -1.21 to 2.42. Regions with SMF index values from -0.20 to 0.51 accounting for 63.0% of dryland area in China. OLS regression results revealed that environmental factors like MAP, MAT, Srad, pH, EVI, and CEC were significantly related to SMF (P<0.05). MAP and MAT were correlated to SMF at the whole aridity level (P<0.05). SEM results showed that the driving factors of SMF differed depending on the aridity level. Soil pH was the strongest driving factor of SMF when the aridity was less than 0.80 (P<0.001). Both soil CEC and EVI had a positive effect on SMF when aridity was greater than 0.80 (P<0.01), with soil CEC being the strongest driving factor. The importance ranking revealed that the relative importance contribution of soil pH to SMF was greatest when aridity was less than 0.80 (66.9%). When aridity was set to greater than 0.80, the relative importance contributions of CEC and EVI to SMF increased (45.1% and 31.9%, respectively). Our findings indicated that SMF had high spatial heterogeneity in drylands of China. The aridity threshold controlled the impact of environmental factors on SMF.

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    Assessment of the impact of climate change on the occurrences of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria
    Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN, Joseph Omojesu AKERELE, Tolulope Adedoyin OLADEJI, Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Godwin ATAI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 309-318.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.007
    Abstract297)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1036KB)(83)       Save

    This study examined the impact of climate change on the occurrence of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria, with the aim of investigating the spatial distribution and prevalence of the four kinds of diseases as well as the coping strategies of people in the area. We collected the rainfall and temperature data of Lokoja City during 2000-2020 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the medical records data of the four kinds of diseases from the Kogi State Ministry of Health. We also conducted a semi-structured questionnaire of 250 residents, who have experienced one of these diseases, to investigate their coping strategies with these diseases. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to research the relationship between the climate parameters and cases of diseases. The result showed annual variations in climatic parameters with R2 values of 0.0557, 0.0009, and 0.4915 for rainfall, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, respectively. A positive and significant relationship were observed between maximum temperature and malaria (r=0.80), rainfall and malaria (r=0.54), minimum temperature and meningitis (r=0.64), as well as rainfall and cholera (r=0.66) at P<0.05 level. For the regression analysis R2= 0.71, 0.50, and 0.52 for malaria, cholera, and meningitis, respectively at P<0.05 level. During 2000-2020, cases of malaria were highest in Ward A with 15,422, while 715 cases of pneumonia were highest in Kupa North Ward. In Ward A, 3787 cases of cholera were recorded to be the highest, while cases of meningitis were highest in Kupa North Ward with 2383 cases. Investigation revealed that malaria is more common in the wet season, while cholera and meningitis cases were highest in the dry season. The study revealed that the most practiced coping strategy is the use of medications by about 90% of the respondents. More studies are recommended in the study area to establish a causal link between climate change and disease occurrence, and intervention from government in form of prevention and control programmes should be vigorously implemented.

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    Assessing and mapping soil erosion risk zone in Ratlam District, central India
    Sunil SAHA, Debabrata SARKAR, Prolay MONDAL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 373-390.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.005
    Abstract267)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (3236KB)(95)       Save

    Evaluation of physical and quantitative data of soil erosion is crucial to the sustainable development of the environment. The extreme form of land degradation through different forms of erosion is one of the major problems in the sub-tropical monsoon-dominated region. In India, tackling soil erosion is one of the major geo-environmental issues for its environment. Thus, identifying soil erosion risk zones and taking preventative actions are vital for crop production management. Soil erosion is induced by climate change, topographic conditions, soil texture, agricultural systems, and land management. In this research, the soil erosion risk zones of Ratlam District was determined by employing the Geographic Information System (GIS), Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and machine learning algorithms (Random Forest and Reduced Error Pruning (REP) tree). RUSLE measured the rainfall eosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), length of slope and steepness (LS), land cover and management (C), and support practices (P) factors. Kappa statistic was used to configure model reliability and it was found that Random Forest and AHP have higher reliability than other models. About 14.73% (715.94 km2) of the study area has very low risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 0.00-7.00×103 kg/(hm2·a), while about 7.46% (362.52 km2) of the study area has very high risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 30.00×103-48.00×103 kg/(hm2·a). Slope, elevation, stream density, Stream Power Index (SPI), rainfall, and land use and land cover (LULC) all affect soil erosion. The current study could help the government and non-government agencies to employ developmental projects and policies accordingly. However, the outcomes of the present research also could be used to prevent, monitor, and control soil erosion in the study area by employing restoration measures.

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    Dynamicity of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC): An analysis from peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Durgapur Municipal Corporation (DMC) in India
    Subrata HALDAR, Somnath MANDAL, Subhasis BHATTACHARYA, Suman PAUL
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 150-172.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.001
    Abstract257)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (9791KB)(9)       Save

    The availability of better economic possibilities and well-connected transportation networks has attracted people to migrate to peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods, changing the landscape of regions outside the city and fostering the growth of physical infrastructure. Using multi-temporal satellite images, the dynamics of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) changes, the impact of urban growth on LULC changes, and regional environmental implications were investigated in the peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Durgapur Municipal Corporation in India. The study used different case studies to highlight the study area’s heterogeneity, as the phenomenon of change is not consistent. Landsat TM and OLI-TIRS satellite images in 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021 were used to analyse the changes in LULC types. We used the relative deviation (RD), annual change intensity (ACI), uniform intensity (UI) to show the dynamicity of LULC types (agriculture land; built-up land; fallow land; vegetated land; mining area; and water bodies ) during 1991-2021. This study also applied the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) to measure environmental sensitivity zones and find out the causes of LULC changes. According to LULC statistics, agriculture land, built-up land, and mining area increased by 51.7, 95.46, and 24.79 km2, respectively, from 1991 to 2021. The results also suggested that built-up land and mining area had the greatest land surface temperature (LST), whereas water bodies and vegetated land showed the lowest LST. Moreover, this study looked at the relationships among LST, spectral indices (Normalized Differenced Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)), and environmental sensitivity. The results showed that all of the spectral indices have the strongest association with LST, indicating that built-up land had a far stronger influence on the LST. The spectral indices indicated that the decreasing trends of vegetated land and water bodies were 4.26 and 0.43 km2/a, respectively, during 1991-2021. In summary, this study can help the policy-makers to predict the increasing rate of temperature and the causes for the temperature increase with the rapid expansion of built-up land, thus making effective peri-urban planning decisions.

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    Optimal decision-making considering inter-supply-chain competition and negative-spillover from environmental effort
    WANG Jiguang, HU Yushang, WU Yucai
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 319-334.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.003
    Abstract255)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (600KB)(50)       Save

    Focusing on negative-spillover from environmental effort, this paper explores the issues of competition and optimal decision-making based on two competing two-stage manufacturer-dominated supply chains: centralized and decentralized. We develop the Stackelberg competition models according to four identified competition scenarios (pure centralized structure-CC, mixed structure-DC, mixed structure-CD, and pure decentralized structure-DD). By comparing the results of the four scenarios, we find that negative-spillover from environmental effort negatively impacts environmental-effort providers and reduces the optimal profit of the manufacturer who provide the environmental effort, which in turn reduces the profit of the entire supply chain. The inter-supply-chain competition also produces a negative incentive for environmental-effort providers but provides a free riding effect on the non-provider, and this effect increases as competition increases. In terms of network externality, the structural change of a supply chain from centralized to decentralized is altruistic, which generates a double-marginalization (i.e., the network externality enhances competitor performance). Furthermore, the leader supply chain with a centralized structure is more willing to provide greater environmental effort, whereas when the leader supply chain structure remains unchanged, its environmental effort depends on the negative-spillover effect and the follower supply chain structure. Therefore, excessive supply chain competition should be avoided, and the negative-spillover effect of environmental effort should be reduced to motivate environmental-effort providers to increase their environmental efforts and promote the development of sustainable green supply chains. Future research should examine retailer-dominated supply chain competition and compare the results with the conclusions of this study.

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    Livelihood vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change: A comparative analysis based on irrigation access in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
    ARIFAH, Darmawan SALMAN, Amir YASSI, Eymal Bahsar DEMMALLINO
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 244-253.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.002
    Abstract237)   HTML0)    PDF(pc) (552KB)(24)       Save

    Bulukumba Regency is one of the major rice-producing areas in South Sulawesi, Indonesia and has experienced frequent climate disasters over the past decade. Several downstream villages within the Bettu River irrigation area have been affected by the drought, culminating in reduced lowland rice production and increasing the vulnerability of farmers’ livelihoods. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability of the livelihood system among rice farmers in the Bettu River irrigation area by classifying the area into two zones based on the distance from the main irrigation canal, namely the upstream area and downstream area. The livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) framework and livelihood vulnerability index-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (LVI-IPCC) approach were applied by selecting geographic and socio-demographic indicators that affected the farmer households, including 8 major components and 26 sup-components. The data for LVI-IPCC estimation were collected by randomly selecting 132 households from villages in the two areas. The empirical results showed that farmers in the downstream area were more vulnerable to climate change than farmers in the upstream area. The major components causing the livelihood vulnerability of the downstream farmers were livelihood strategy, food, water, land, health, as well as natural disasters and climate variability. In particular, the sub-components of agricultural livelihood diversification, consistent water supply for farming, and drought events were important in the downstream area. Farmers in the upstream area were vulnerable to socio-demographic profile and social network components. The LVI-IPCC findings suggested that the government should prioritize farmers in the downstream area to develop resilience strategies, particularly by increasing irrigation infrastructure and the number of reservoirs and drilling holes. Furthermore, to increase their adaptive capacity in terms of diversification of agricultural livelihood systems, the government and donor agencies need to provide trainings on the development of home food industries for poor farmers and vulnerable households that were affected by disasters.

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    Traditional agroecological knowledge and practices: The drivers and opportunities for adaptation actions in the northern region of Ghana
    Enoch YELELIERE, Thomas YEBOAH, Philip ANTWI-AGYEI, Prince PEPRAH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 294-308.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.002
    Abstract233)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (504KB)(45)       Save

    Agroecological practices are promoted as a more proactive approach than conventional agriculture to achieving a collective global response to climate change and variability while building robust and resilient agricultural systems to meet food needs and protect the integrity of ecosystems. There is relatively limited evidence on the key traditional agroecological knowledge and practices adopted by smallholder farmers, the factors that influence smallholder farmers’ decision to adopt these practices, and the opportunities it presents for building resilient agricultural systems. Using a multi-scale mixed method approach, we conducted key informant interviews (n=12), focus group discussions (n=5), and questionnaire surveys (N=220) to explore the traditional agroecological knowledge and practices, the influencing factors, and the opportunities smallholder farmers presented for achieving resilient agricultural systems. Our findings suggest that smallholder farmers employ a suite of traditional agroecological knowledge and practices to enhance food security, combat climate change, and build resilient agricultural systems. The most important traditional agroecological knowledge and practices in the study area comprise cultivating leguminous crops, mixed crop-livestock systems, and crop rotation, with Relative Importance Index (RII) values of 0.710, 0.708, and 0.695, respectively. It is reported that the choice of these practices by smallholder farmers is influenced by their own farming experience, access to market, access to local resources, information, and expertise, and the perceived risk of climate change. Moreover, the results further show that improving household food security and nutrition, improving soil quality, control of pest and disease infestation, and support from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and local authorities are opportunities for smallholder farmers in adopting traditional agroecological knowledge and practices for achieving resilient agricultural systems. The findings call into question the need for stakeholders and policy-makers at all levels to develop capacity and increase the awareness of traditional agroecological knowledge and practices as mechanisms to ensure resilient agricultural systems for sustainable food security.

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    Land tenure security, place satisfaction and loyalty in the peri-urban area of Ibadan City, Nigeria
    Taiwo Oladapo BABALOLA
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 346-355.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.004
    Abstract223)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (406KB)(113)       Save

    Land tenure security is pertinent to achieving the sustainable development agenda in cities where land is needed and useful for development purposes. Sufficient empirical research has been done to prove the importance of tenure security for investment, resilience, conservation, food security, as well as health and well-being, but it has not been clarified if and how land tenure security could adequately influence place loyalty and satisfaction with the residential environment, as it is clear that place loyalty and satisfaction are pertinent to inclusive development. Using the case of Ibadan City, the study examined how different dimensions of tenure security could determine residents’ place loyalty and satisfaction. The study employed a survey cross-sectional research design to distribute 514 structured questionnaires to household heads across 4 sampled peri-urban local government areas while 452 were retrieved for analysis. Hierarchical regression analysis model was employed to understand the association between tenure security dimensions and satisfaction (as model I) and loyalty (as model II). For model I, F=8.640, P=0.000, R=0.555, and R2=0.308 were obtained; while for model II, F=9.157, P=0.001, R=0.415, and R2=0.173 were acquired. This thus means that residents’ place loyalty and satisfaction can partly be explained by tenure security. In particular, respondents with no eviction experience, recognized property rights, and invulnerable to eviction have higher odds of being satisfied and loyal. Therefore, we recommend protection, improvement, and upgrading of land tenure security as one of the means to promote place loyalty and satisfaction, which is essential to achieving inclusive and sustainable development.

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    Knowledge flow analysis of knowledge co-production-based climate change adaptation for lowland rice farmers in Bulukumba Regency, Indonesia
    Arifah, Darmawan SALMAN, Amir YASSI, Eymal Bahsar DEMMALLINO
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 194-202.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.005
    Abstract202)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (265KB)(25)       Save

    To increase the resilience of farmers’ livelihood systems, detailed knowledge of adaptation strategies for dealing with the impacts of climate change is required. Knowledge co-production approach is an adaptation strategy that is considered appropriate in the context of the increasing frequency of disasters caused by climate change. Previous research of knowledge co-production on climate change adaptation in Indonesia is insufficient, particularly at local level, so we examined the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge in the knowledge co-production process through climate field school (CFS) activities in this study. We interviewed 120 people living in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, involving 12 crowds including male and female farmers participated in CFS and not participated in CFS, local government officials, agriculture extension workers, agricultural traders, farmers’ family members and neighbors, etc. In brief, the 12 groups of people mainly include two categories of people, i.e., people involved in CFS activities and outside CFS. We applied descriptive method and Social network analysis (SNA) to determine how knowledge flow in the community network and which groups of actors are important for knowledge flow. The findings of this study reveal that participants in CFS activities convey the knowledge they acquired formally (i.e., from TV, radio, government, etc.) and informally (i.e., from market, friends, relatives, etc.) to other actors, especially to their families and neighbors. The results also show that the acquisition and sharing of knowledge facilitate the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge based on knowledge co-operation. In addition, the findings highlight the key role of actors in the knowledge transfer process, and key actors involved in disseminating information about climate change adaptation. To be specific, among all the actors, family member and neighbor of CFS actor are the most common actors in disseminating climate knowledge information and closest to other actors in the network; agricultural trader and family member of CFS actor collaborate most with other actors in the community network; and farmers participated in CFS, including those heads of farmer groups, agricultural extension workers, and local government officials are more willing to contact with other actors in the network. To facilitate the flow of knowledge on climate change adaptation, CFS activities should be conducted regularly and CFS models that fit the situation of farmers’ vulnerability to climate change should be developed.

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    Socio-economic development of countries based on the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI)
    Kalamkas NURALINA, Raissa BAIZHOLOVA, Natalya ALEKSANDROVA, Viktor KONSTANTINOV, Alexander BIRYUKOV
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 115-128.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.005
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    World experience indicates the existence of significant imbalances in the development of countries. The problem of assessing the rational development of the regional and national economy is becoming urgent, since such assessments can prevent development imbalances across countries. The aim of this study is to elaborate a methodology to assess the countries’ socio-economic development by integraring 12 modern indices of socio-economic development into the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI). The methodology of this research was based on a set of key indices that described socio-economic development level in four fields (social development, digital development, economic development, and environmental security) and then these indices were integrated into the CCDI. The study further applied factor analysis and R-Studio software to define the gaps of social and economic development in 59 selected countries using the trigonometric function of the angle sine. The correlation analysis confirmed the existence of a close interrelation among the studied countries. This paper noted that due to the emergence of new priorities, it is necessary to revise the assessment methodology of socio-economic development level and expand them to cover the decisive factors. This was confirmed by the results obtained, demonstrating various combinations of the development level in the four fields and their impact on the CCDI. The scientific contribution of this research is to form a methodology (e.g., the CCDI) for evaluating the socio-economic development level of countries in the world.

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    GIS-based assessment of land-agroforestry potentiality of Jharkhand State, India
    Firoz AHMAD, Nazimur Rahman TALUKDAR, Laxmi GOPARAJU, Chandrashekhar BIRADAR, Shiv Kumar DHYANI, Javed RIZVI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 254-268.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.004
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    Scaling-up agroforestry areas in various forms is a scientific path towards achieving various sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially improving livelihood, reducing poverty, conserving environment and biodiversity, and transforming climate change. In this study, the effort was made to investigate the land potentiality for agroforestry at the district level in Jharkhand State, India by applying geographic information system (GIS) modeling technology using climate (temperature and precipitation), topography (slope and elevation), ecology (percent tree cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)), and social economics (poverty rate and tribal dominance) factors. The results revealed that six districts of Jharkhand State had agroforestry potential greater than 60.00%. The highest agroforestry suitability was found in Simdega District (78.20%), followed by Pakur (76.25%), West Singhbhum (72.70%), Dumka (68.84%), Sahibganj (64.63%), and Godda (63.43%) districts. Additionally, we identified 513 out of 32,620 villages of Jharkhand State potentially suitable (agroforestry suitability ≥80.00%) for agroforestry with the objective of life improvement among marginalized society. Under the outside forest area, 8.58% of the total geographical land of Jharkhand State was wasteland, much of which was found suitable for agroforestry practices. The agroforestry setups in those wastelands can absorb 637 t carbon annually in long run and can provide direct economic benefits to the locals besides additional income for carbon emission reduction. This study concluded that Jharkhand State has plenty of high potential land for agroforestry, and adoption of agroforestry at the village level must be given high priority. This study could guide the nodal authorities to prepare appropriate strategies for scaling the tree cover in agroforestry systems in village-level landscape planning which needs policy attention and investment for achieving 9 out of the 17 SDGs.

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    Latent dimensions between water use and socio-economic development: A global exploratory statistical analysis
    Edson Elídio BALATA, Hugo PINTO, Manuela Moreira da SILVA
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 269-280.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.004
    Abstract189)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (603KB)(12)       Save

    Water use and socio-economic development are interconnected in complex ways. Causalities are not easy to identify but it is evident that a nexus between water use and socio-economic development does exist. Considering the diversity of national situations relating to these interrelated phenomena, its study should be considered from a global perspective. This article critically reviews the literature and information from official sources on the relevance of water use and circular economy in order to create a global picture, linking water with socio-economic development. Data from 195 countries was analyzed statistically. A factor analysis defined five essential latent dimensions on the nexus between water use and socio-economic development: development and basic services, population and resource, economic volume, health and well-being, and population density. Based on the identified factors, countries were classified into six groups: Global South in difficulty, global semi-periphery, advanced economy, Middle East and other Global South developing economy, global weight, and small highly developed economy. The clustering results clarify connections between water use conditions and socio-economic development. Understanding the variety of national profiles is helpful to reveal the magnitude and urgency of dealing with the nexus between water use and socio-economic development for many countries.

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    Climate change risk, resilience, and adaptation among rural farmers in East Africa: A literature review
    Tobias ACKERL, Lemlem Fitwi WELDEMARIAM, Mary NYASIMI, Ayansina AYANLADE
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 185-193.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.004
    Abstract187)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (370KB)(12)       Save

    This study assesses the literature evidence on climate change risk, resilience, and adaptation measures used among rural farmers in East Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted comprising 30 papers from the Web of Science database published during 2000-2022. The results of the literature review showed that climate change risks have direct impacts on agricultural practices, limit rural farmers’ resilience, and exacerbate their food insecurity. The most prominent risks are increasingly shorter wet seasons and heat stress, which lead to droughts and food production losses. Responding to climate risks, farmers in East Africa adopt various adaptation strategies such as mixed- and inter-cropping, conservation tillage, early planting, crop diversification, etc. Also, this review summarizes the determinants of climate change adaptation strategy selection by farmers in East Africa, including age, gender, household size, economic status and household assets, landownership and livestock, education and training, etc. Overall, the choice of adaptation strategies to climate change is strongly determined by the gender of household heads, the results of gender as a determinant of adaptation differ greatly between different case studies. Although female-headed households (FHHs) tend to perceive changes in temperature more readily than male-headed households (MHHs), the latter are generally more likely to adopt different adaptation strategies. Despite the resilience and adaptation measures used by rural farmers in East Africa now, improved weather forecasting and early warning systems are needed as a better direction towards the future.

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    Influencing factors and contribution analysis of CO2 emissions originating from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province, China
    LIU Wei, JIA Zhijie, DU Meng, DONG Zhanfeng, PAN Jieyu, LI Qinrui, PAN Linyan, Chris UMOLE
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 356-372.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.006
    Abstract181)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (912KB)(54)       Save

    Within the context of CO2 emission peaking and carbon neutrality, the study of CO2 emissions at the provincial level is few. Sichuan Province in China has not only superior clean energy resources endowment but also great potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Therefore, using logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model to analysis the influence degree of different influencing factors on CO2 emissions from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province, so as to formulate corresponding emission reduction countermeasures from different paths according to the influencing factors. Based on the data of final energy consumption in Sichuan Province from 2010 to 2019, we calculated CO2 emission by the indirect emission calculation method. The influencing factors of CO2 emissions originating from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province were decomposed into population size, economic development, industrial structure, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure by the Kaya-logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition model. At the same time, grey correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between CO2 emissions originating from final energy consumption and the influencing factors in Sichuan Province. The results showed that population size, economic development and energy consumption structure have positive contributions to CO2 emissions from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province, and economic development has a significant contribution to CO2 emissions from final energy consumption, with a contribution rate of 519.11%. The industrial structure and energy consumption intensity have negative contributions to CO2 emissions in Sichuan Province, and both of them have significant contributions, among which the contribution rate of energy consumption structure was 325.96%. From the perspective of industrial structure, secondary industry makes significant contributions and will maintain a restraining effect; from the perspective of energy consumption structure, industry sector has a significant contribution. The results of this paper are conducive to the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies in Sichuan Province.

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