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    Right-wing and populist support for climate mitigation policies: Evidence from Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 281-293.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.001
    Abstract539)   HTML6)    PDF (371KB)(43)      

    Research on environmental behaviour is often overlooked in literature on regime destabilization in energy transitions. This study addresses that gap by focusing on socio-political and demographic factors shaping support for carbon regime destabilization policies in one of the most carbon-intensive regions of Europe. Carbon-intensive industries, especially coal mining and coal-based power generation, are often concentrated in a few carbon-intensive regions. Therefore, decarbonization actions will affect those regions particularly strongly. Correspondingly, carbon-intensive regions often exert significant political influence on the two climate mitigation policies at the national level. Focusing on Poland, we investigate socio-political and demographic factors that correlate with the approval or rejection of the two climate mitigation policies: increasing taxes on fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal and using public money to subsidize renewable energy such as wind and solar power in Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region. Using logistic regression with individual-level data derived from the 2016 European Social Survey (ESS) and the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES), we find party-political ideology to be an important predictor at the national level but much less so at the regional level. Specifically, voting for right-wing party is not a divisive factor for individual support of the two climate mitigation policies either nationally or regionally. More interestingly, populism is a strong factor in support of increasing taxes on fossil fuel in the carbon-intensive Silesia region but is less important concerning in support of using public money to subsidize renewable energy in Poland overall. These results show the heterogeneity of right-wing party and populism within the support for the two climate mitigation policies. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, gender, education level, employment status, and employment sector, have even more complex and heterogeneous components in support of the two climate mitigation policies at the national and regional levels. Identifying the complex socio-political and demographic factors of climate mitigation policies across different national versus carbon-intensive regional contexts is an essential step for generating in situ decarbonization strategies.

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    Transaction costs for collaboration in the watershed management of the Cuyahoga River Area of Concern
    Scott Daniel HARDY
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 146-156.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.07.005
    Abstract379)   HTML2)    PDF (281KB)(34)      

    This study examines the transaction costs of collaborative watershed management in the Cuyahoga River Area of Concern (AOC)—one of the 43 geographic areas designated by the U.S. and Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), where significant impairment of beneficial uses has occurred as a result of human activities. The Cuyahoga River is located in Northeast Ohio, the U. S. and flows through the City of Cleveland before draining into Lake Erie—one of the five Great Lakes of North America. The watershed is degraded due to municipal and agricultural discharges, streambank erosion, and contamination from urban and industrial sources. This research explores how a diverse group of stakeholders convened under the Cuyahoga River AOC Advisory Committee to share information, coordinate activities, agree on activities that restore beneficial uses, and support strategic management actions. In this study, 23 semi-structured interviews with members of the advisory committee were conducted between January 28, 2020 and April 20, 2020, with follow-up emails and phone calls as needed to corroborate information. A review of research articles and government documents supported the interviews, including United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and Ohio Environment Production Agency (OEPA) reports on the GLWQA and Cuyahoga River Remedial Action Plans. A third source of data is from direct participant observation at quarterly meetings of the advisory committee during 2017-2020, binational AOC conferences in 2017 and 2019, and other professional events geared towards restoring the Cuyahoga River AOC in 2016-2020. Results help to explain the collaborative process within the advisory committee and measure the institutional performance of the advisory committee in terms of efficiency, equitability, accountability, and adaptability. Results of this study include a set of recommendations to help guide group structure and decision-making processes, including (1) employing best available technology to organize AOC events and disseminate information; (2) supporting new members with an orientation and/or mentor to clearly define formal and informal committee rules; (3) assuring equal access to detailed information on management action plans with a real time dashboard; (4) updating voting procedures and the prioritization of management actions; and (5) better incorporating underrepresented local communities and high-level decision makers from municipalities, government agencies, and nongovernmental organizations located within the Cuyahoga River AOC.

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    Post-displacement status of climate migrants in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh
    Syed Mahbubur RAHMAN, Mahreen MAMOON, Md Shamimul ISLAM, Saif HOSSAIN, Rezwanul HAQUE, Abul Bashar Md ZUBAIR
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 183-187.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.002
    Abstract370)   HTML10)    PDF (331KB)(29)      

    Some big cities in Bangladesh have been experiencing a massive and rapid influx of rural people due to the impacts of climate change, and therefore the urban administration encounters enormous challenges. This study aims to investigate the drivers of climate-induced migration and the post-displacement status of the migrants living in the urban slum of Rajshahi City. Using a semi-structured questionnaire survey, this study conducted interviews with 50 migrants residing in two slums in Rajshahi City. An interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach was implemented to evaluate the survey data. This study finds that food insecurity and flood are the two significant climate drivers of migration. Among the non-climate drivers, lack of alternative livelihood is the major reason. It should be noticed that the climate migrants in many cases do not get the opportunity to improve their living standards; they are usually occupied with low-pay professions like maid, van and rickshaw puller, and scrap collector. The study also reveals that migrants, especially females and children, need several basic physiological, economic, social, and health services. Most children have no chance to attend school. Compared to males, females have more opportunities for some support and allowances. Overall, an inadequate level of change has taken place in the lives of migrants, which raises the concern if migration is ever a way to resolve a problem or the beginning of many other problems. Further researches may concentrate on the impact of migration on the dynamics of social capital among slum dwellers.

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    Evaluation of carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change in Zhengzhou City of China
    HE Jianjian, ZHANG Pengyan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.002
    Abstract331)   HTML13)    PDF (3234KB)(123)      

    Studies on carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change (LUCC) are key to understanding the impact of human activities on regional sustainability. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial changes in carbon emissions associated with LUCC for production, living, and ecological spaces in Zhengzhou City of China. Landsat remote sensing images were used to classify the land use and land cover (LULC) types in Zhengzhou City in 1988, 2001, 2009, and 2015. Carbon emissions associated with LUCC were evaluated using a spatial gradient model and the niche mechanism. It was found that during 1988-2015, carbon emissions associated with LUCC in Zhengzhou City increased by 17.1×106 t, while the carbon sink resulted from cultivated land, forests, water bodies, and unused land decreased significantly. Most of the increase in carbon emissions associated with LUCC occurred in the center of the city. The peak carbon emissions were located in the northeastern, southeastern, northwestern, and southwestern regions of Zhengzhou City, and carbon emissions varied considerably in the different spatial gradient rings over time. Among the three spaces, carbon emissions associated with LUCC were mainly affected by the living space. The population size and population urbanization rate were negatively correlated with the ecological space and positively correlated with the production and living spaces. Our results highlight that Zhengzhou City should take the new urbanization path of urban transformation development and ecological civilization construction to ensure the realization of the promised carbon emission reduction targets.

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    Charging infrastructure planning for electric vehicle in India: Present status and future challenges
    Sulabh SACHAN, Praveen Prakash SINGH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 335-345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.008
    Abstract322)   HTML3)    PDF (584KB)(123)      

    The challenge to deal with environmental contamination along with national goals such as energy security, reliability, and self-dependency due to depleting fossil fuel resources has motivated researchers to find an alternate solution in the transport sector. Due to this, electrification of the transport sector has become an achievable solution that has caught attention with increasing penetration in the market share. India is a participant in the Paris Agreement which aims to curtail the production of greenhouse gases and limit the escalating temperature. Public intervention and changes in policy and regulations are the key aspects of technological transition. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, the consumers’ frame of mind concerns about adapting to e-mobility is anxiety over charging times and driving range. Thus, the development of charging stations plays a crucial role in promoting electric vehicles (EVs). This study investigates to identify different barriers that exist in the Indian context related to the adoption of e-mobility. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the recent developments in charging infrastructure planning in India. Also, the status of installed charging stations is examined. Developing appropriate charging stations are associated with several challenges, which are also highlighted to provide guidance to public and private entities that can be adopted in their respective business model. As India has the second largest population and is the seventh largest country in the world, the EV adoption rate of India is considerably low compared to other countries; for India, there is a long way to match the growth rate of EV adoption. Hence it becomes essential to develop a robust and suitable charging infrastructure to promote the sale and use of EVs in India.

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    Towards a sustainable campus-city relationship: A systematic review of the literature
    Ahmed Mohammed Sayed MOHAMMED, Tetsuya UKAI, Michael HALL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.004
    Abstract305)   HTML3)    PDF (1170KB)(98)      

    The relationship between a university and its city is considered strategical to achieve university targeted ambitions and visions. The university-city relationship is also encouraged for the benefit of the city, as universities unleash their respective cities’ potentials to act as driving forces not only for their local communities, but also for the whole nation. Therefore, maintaining a mutual relationship between the university and the city is considered essential to accomplish strategic goals for both. However, the nature of this relationship is quite complex, overlapped, interconnected, and diverse. Therefore, this paper conducted a systematic review of the literature on university-city and campus-city relationships to evaluate recent research trends to uncover the aspects that connect universities with their respective cities. The search included articles published in 4 different databases from January 1990 to January 2021. A total number of 50 articles were selected in this review. The findings uncovered different aspects that could help or hinder university-city relationship based on the physical and functional linkage between the campus and the city. Moreover, findings have shown that it is necessary to understand universities according to their contextual differences, as universities have shown different impacts on their respective cities in terms of their sizes and locations. Results have also shown that the impact of the physical connection between the university and the city goes far beyond campus’s accessibility as it deeply affects students’ social life as well. Therefore, decision makers, stakeholders, and university administrators need to co-design campus development process especially in the early stages to maximize the mutual benefits of campus-city relationship. The main conclusions of this paper address several perspectives and lessons for a more sustainable campus-city relationship.

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    Nexus between selected macroeconomic variables and carbon emission in Kenya
    James NJUMWA, Ernest SAINA, Alfred SEREM
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 233-243.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.003
    Abstract303)   HTML2)    PDF (419KB)(7)      

    Agriculture is not only influenced by climate change, but it is also one of the significant contributors of CO2 emission. Understanding CO2 emission and macroeconomic variables is critical to solving the challenges and threats faced by Kenya’s agriculture and environment. This study used the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and the autoregressive distribution lag model (ADLM) to analyze the relationships of CO2 emission with agricultural output, government direct investment, trade openness, and inflation rate in Kenya from 1983 to 2019. The study found that there exists a positive (direct) relationship between CO2 emission and foreign direct investment in the long run in Kenya. Additionally, CO2 emission and trade openness have a negative (indirect) and statistically significant relationship after the error correction term adjustment in the long run. Moreover, the relationship between CO2 emission and agricultural output is positive (direct) and statistically significant in the long run. There is a positive (direct) and statistically insignificant relationship between CO2 emission and inflation rate in the short run. Notably, the EKC hypothesis indicated that the Kenya’s economy is still on the environmental degradation trade-off through the gradual increase of both CO2 emission and agricultural output. Our results are important to Kenya’s economy because the derived insights will assist in relevant departments to formulate sustainable strategies to minimize environmental degradation.

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    Regional characteristics and spatiotemporal differentiation of the prevalence of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Xinjiang, China
    MA Chen, WANG Hongwei, XIE Ling, YI Suyan, TAN Bo
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 208-222.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.001
    Abstract280)   HTML4)    PDF (2993KB)(5)      

    In recent years, the number of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases in China has continued to grow, and the disease has become a serious public health issue. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in the arid areas of Northwest China, where the epidemiological trend of HFMD is gradually increasing and characterized by geographical heterogeneity. In this study, based on the HFMD case data in all counties and cities in Xinjiang, we employed statistical and GIS spatial analyses, and geographic probe models to characterize the spatiotemporal differentiation of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang during the period of 2009-2018, and quantitatively analyzed the factors influencing the spatial differentiation of HFMD epidemics. The results showed that HFMD incidence rate in Xinjiang had non-stationary temporal characteristics on the interannual and monthly scales, and the monthly variation characteristics of HFMD epidemic were quite different in southern and northern Xinjiang. The spatial distribution characteristics of HFMD epidemics showed a north-south spatial differentiation pattern with the Tianshan Mountains as the boundary; cold spot and hot spot of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang have shifted from scattered to concentrated, and the spatial differentiation pattern had gradually stabilized. Moreover, the dominant factors influencing the spatial differentiation of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang were socioeconomic factors, such as per capita GDP and urbanization rate, while the basic factors affecting its spatial differentiation were natural environmental factors. The spatial differentiation and evolution patterns of HFMD epidemics differed between northern and southern Xinjiang. Specifically, the leading role of socioeconomic factors is more obvious in southern Xinjiang than in northern Xinjiang, while natural environmental factors (e.g., dryness and relative humidity) contribute to the prevalence of HFMD epidemics in northern Xinjiang, and the perturbing effect of these factors was more prominent than other factors. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for the prevention of HFMD epidemics and early warning of HFMD epidemics in Xinjiang.

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    Spatial variability and driving factors of soil multifunctionality in drylands of China
    ZHANG Shihang, CHEN Yusen, LU Yongxing, GUO Hao, GUO Xing, LIU Chaohong, ZHOU Xiaobing, ZHANG Yuanming
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 223-232.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.001
    Abstract273)   HTML2)    PDF (1310KB)(86)      

    Drylands are highly vulnerable to climate change and human activities. The drylands of China account for approximately 10.8% of global drylands, and China is the country most severely affected by aridity in Asia. Therefore, studying the spatial variation characteristics in soil multifunctionality (SMF) and investigating the driving factors are critical for elucidating and managing the functions of dryland ecosystems in China. Based on the environmental factors (mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), solar radiation (Srad), soil acidity (pH), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and aridity from the Dataset of soil properties for land surface modeling over China, we used non-linear regression, ordinary least square (OLS) regression, structural equation model (SEM), and other analytical methods to investigate the relationships of SMF with environmental factors across different aridity levels in China. SMF in different dryland regions varied significantly and showed a patchy distribution, with SMF index values ranging from -1.21 to 2.42. Regions with SMF index values from -0.20 to 0.51 accounting for 63.0% of dryland area in China. OLS regression results revealed that environmental factors like MAP, MAT, Srad, pH, EVI, and CEC were significantly related to SMF (P<0.05). MAP and MAT were correlated to SMF at the whole aridity level (P<0.05). SEM results showed that the driving factors of SMF differed depending on the aridity level. Soil pH was the strongest driving factor of SMF when the aridity was less than 0.80 (P<0.001). Both soil CEC and EVI had a positive effect on SMF when aridity was greater than 0.80 (P<0.01), with soil CEC being the strongest driving factor. The importance ranking revealed that the relative importance contribution of soil pH to SMF was greatest when aridity was less than 0.80 (66.9%). When aridity was set to greater than 0.80, the relative importance contributions of CEC and EVI to SMF increased (45.1% and 31.9%, respectively). Our findings indicated that SMF had high spatial heterogeneity in drylands of China. The aridity threshold controlled the impact of environmental factors on SMF.

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    Exploring the dynamic evolutionary mechanism of game model on the protection of traditional villages
    LI Jiaqi, JIN Tao, XIANG Wei, HUANG Qinzhen
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 188-207.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.003
    Abstract270)   HTML6)    PDF (1942KB)(34)      

    With the rapid improvement of urbanization and industrialization in countries around the world, how to effectively solve the rapid demise of traditional villages is a social dilemma faced by all countries, which is why a series of relevant protection regulations have been promulgated in different historical periods. However, the formulation of relevant policies is still not scientific, universal, and long-term. In this study, we constructed an evolutionary game model of local governments and residents based on the evolutionary game theory (EGT), which is used to explore the evolutionary stability strategy (ESS) and stability conditions of stakeholders under the premise of mutual influence and restriction. Besides, the study also includes the analysis about the impacts of different influence factors on the evolution tendency of the game model. At the same time, numerical simulation examples were used to verify the theoretical results and three crucial conclusions have been drawn. Firstly, the strategic evolution of stakeholders is a dynamic process of continuous adjustment and optimization, and its results and speed show consistent interdependence. Secondly, the decision-making of stakeholders mainly depends on the basic cost, and the high cost of investment is not conducive to the protection of traditional villages. Thirdly, the dynamic evolutionary mechanism composed of different influence factors will have an impact on the direction and speed of decision-making of stakeholders, which provides the basis for them to effectively restrict the decision-making of each other. This study eliminates the weaknesses of existing research approaches and provides scientific and novel ideas for the protection of traditional villages, which can contribute to the formulation and improvement of the relevant laws and regulations.

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    Willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses: A case study of 45 villages in Henan Province, China
    WANG Yuchan, GAO Genghe, NING Xiaoju, LI Yuanzheng, NIU Ning, GUO Yaqi
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 133-145.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.07.001
    Abstract266)   HTML3)    PDF (624KB)(28)      

    The willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses has an important impact on local urbanization. At present, there are few researches on the willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses. The existing researches mostly focus on the perspective of sociology and economics, and few studies are conducted from the perspective of geography. Based on the survey data of 45 villages in Henan Province of China in 2019, this study used binary logistic method to study the influencing factors of the willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses. The willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses is affected by many factors, such as personal, family, village, and returning factors. Among them, age and returning period are negatively correlated with the willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses. Factors such as years of education, years of working, and per capita income of village are positively correlated with the willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses. Returning migrant workers in plains and hilly areas are more willing to purchase houses than those in mountainous areas. The formation of the willingness to purchase houses is mainly related to economic foundation, age, marital status, and other factors. Returning migrant workers are becoming more willing to purchase houses, and the expected locations are mainly concentrated in the county seats. In the context of China’s high density of rural population and rapid urbanization, more returning migrant workers are expected to purchase houses in cities and towns for the sake of employment, marriage, children’s education, and access to public services. As a result, there is an extensive market of potential purchasers, which affects the development of the local urban real estate industry and is of great significance for returning migrant workers to truly integrate into the cities. However, some returning migrant workers still choose to purchase houses in villages, mainly affected by traditional concepts, living habits, and the better development of villages. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to explore the willingness of returning migrant workers to purchase houses, so as to master the flow laws and future behavior of returning migrant workers to purchase houses.

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    Exploring the complex structural evolution of global primary product trade network
    JIANG Xiaorong, LIU Qing, WANG Shenglan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 82-94.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.006
    Abstract263)   HTML6)    PDF (4539KB)(99)      

    The production and trade of primary products had a growing impact on the economic security of all countries and regions, and the strategic position of these products in the global trade network was becoming increasingly prominent. Based on complex network theory, this paper explored the spatial pattern and complex structural evolution of the global primary product trade network (GPPTN) during 1985-2015 by using index methods, such as centrality, Sankey diagram, and structure entropy, focusing on the diversified spatial structure of China’s import and export markets for primary products (with exceptions of Taiwan of China, Hong Kong of China, and Macao of China due to a lack of data) and their geographical implications for China’s energy security. The research offered the following key findings. The GPPTN showed an obvious spatial heterogeneity pattern, and the area of import consumption was more concentrated; however, the overall trend was decentralized. The trade center of gravity shifted eastwards and reflected the rise of emerging markets. The overall flow of the GPPTN was from west to east and from south to north. In terms of the community detection of the GPPTN, North America, Europe, and Asia increasingly presented an unbalanced “tripartite confrontation”. China’s exports of primary products were mainly concentrated in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and other peripheral regions of Asia, and its imports undergone a major transformation, gradually expanding from the peripheral regions of Asia to Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Energy fuels also became the largest imported primary products. Based on the changing trend of structural entropy and main market share, the analysis showed that the stable supply of China’s energy diversification was gradually realized. In particular, the cooperation dividend proposed by the Belt and Road initiative became an important turning point and a strong support for the expansion of China’s energy market diversification pattern and guarantee of energy security.

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    Illustrating the multi-stakeholder perceptions of environmental pollution based on big data: Lessons from China
    LIU Haimeng, LIU Huaming, CHENG Yi
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 12-26.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.003
    Abstract262)   HTML7)    PDF (3719KB)(78)      

    The relationship between stakeholders and the environment influences sustainable development and human wellbeing. To illustrate the multi-stakeholder perceptions of environmental pollution in China, we interpreted a feedback loop in the perception-behavior-environment nexus from the perspective of the coupled human-environment system, measured the differences of environmental perceptions among five stakeholders (the public, government, media, companies, and scientists) and regions (including 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, with exceptions of Taiwan of China, Hong Kong of China, and Macao of China due to a lack of data) using big data, and made a comparison between the perceptions and the actual pollution situation. The results showed that the five stakeholders exhibited similar perceptions of environmental pollution at the national scale, with air pollution being of most concern, followed by water pollution and soil pollution. There were significant spatial differences in environmental perceptions. All stakeholders in the developed regions in eastern China paid relatively high attention to environmental issues, while those in the northwestern regions paid much less attention. There existed a mutual influence and interaction among the different stakeholders. More attention should be paid to air pollution in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, water pollution in Hainan Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province, and Jilin Province, and soil pollution in Hainan Province, Fujian Province, and Jilin Province. This paper provides a research paradigm on multi-stakeholder environmental perceptions based on big data, and the results provide a background reference for regional environmental governance.

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    Assessment of the impact of climate change on the occurrences of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria
    Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN, Joseph Omojesu AKERELE, Tolulope Adedoyin OLADEJI, Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Godwin ATAI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 309-318.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.007
    Abstract252)   HTML7)    PDF (1036KB)(25)      

    This study examined the impact of climate change on the occurrence of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria, with the aim of investigating the spatial distribution and prevalence of the four kinds of diseases as well as the coping strategies of people in the area. We collected the rainfall and temperature data of Lokoja City during 2000-2020 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the medical records data of the four kinds of diseases from the Kogi State Ministry of Health. We also conducted a semi-structured questionnaire of 250 residents, who have experienced one of these diseases, to investigate their coping strategies with these diseases. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to research the relationship between the climate parameters and cases of diseases. The result showed annual variations in climatic parameters with R2 values of 0.0557, 0.0009, and 0.4915 for rainfall, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, respectively. A positive and significant relationship were observed between maximum temperature and malaria (r=0.80), rainfall and malaria (r=0.54), minimum temperature and meningitis (r=0.64), as well as rainfall and cholera (r=0.66) at P<0.05 level. For the regression analysis R2= 0.71, 0.50, and 0.52 for malaria, cholera, and meningitis, respectively at P<0.05 level. During 2000-2020, cases of malaria were highest in Ward A with 15,422, while 715 cases of pneumonia were highest in Kupa North Ward. In Ward A, 3787 cases of cholera were recorded to be the highest, while cases of meningitis were highest in Kupa North Ward with 2383 cases. Investigation revealed that malaria is more common in the wet season, while cholera and meningitis cases were highest in the dry season. The study revealed that the most practiced coping strategy is the use of medications by about 90% of the respondents. More studies are recommended in the study area to establish a causal link between climate change and disease occurrence, and intervention from government in form of prevention and control programmes should be vigorously implemented.

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    Impact of climate change on agricultural production: A case of Rasuwa District, Nepal
    Binod DAWADI, Anjula SHRESTHA, Ram Hari ACHARYA, Yam Prasad DHITAL, Rohini DEVKOTA
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 122-132.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.07.002
    Abstract247)   HTML3)    PDF (1041KB)(30)      

    Climate change is expected to threaten the developing countries the most. Nepal is considered one of the five countries most vulnerable to climate change in the world. The mountainous area such as Rasuwa District in Nepal is more vulnerable due to complex topography, human activity (tourism), and climate change. In this context, we carried out this study to assess the climate change and its impact on agriculture production as well as people’s perceptions on the impact of climate change. The long-term (1980-2014) observed climate data (temperature and precipitation) and field-based survey data on people’s perceptions were analyzed. Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope estimation were used to analyze the temperature and precipitation trends. Furthermore, key informant interviews (KIIs) and focal group discussions (FGDs) were conducted to understand people’s perceptions of the impact of climate change on agricultural production. Further, ERA5 and APHRODITE datasets were used to compare the in situ climate data. The maximum temperature and total precipitation in summer monsoon (June-September) were found increasing significantly at rates of 0.07°C/a and 19.89 mm/a, respectively. But the minimum winter temperature and winter precipitation were found decrease by 0.05°C/a and 4.89 mm/a, respectively. Moreover, a large number of respondents reported a decrease in millet and wheat productions while an increase in potato production over the considered time duration (1990-2014). It is noteworthy that the respondents from the mid-elevation regions perceived an increasing trend in crop production compared to those from the low elevation regions. In recent years, people living in the high elevation regions of Rasuwa District have started to shift their cropping calendar to increase agricultural production. This study will provide useful information for policy-makers in formulating adaptation strategies in mountainous areas of Nepal.

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    Use of the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model to examine sustainable agriculture in Thailand
    LIAO Xuewei, Thi Phuoc Lai NGUYEN, Nophea SASAKI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 41-52.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.005
    Abstract238)   HTML4)    PDF (504KB)(139)      

    Sustainable agriculture plays an important role in achieving sustainable development goals with regard to food security and environmental conservation. Sustainable agriculture relies on sustainable farming practices that reduce greenhouse gas production, the wise use of local natural resources, and reductions in negative impacts on the environment and human health. Sustainable farming practices can be driven by various factors, such as the socio-environmental setting, socio-cognitive factors, agricultural institutions, and policy. This study used the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model to examine farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the area of sustainable agriculture. It also considered the factors affecting farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Two different socio-environmental contextual settings in Surin Province (a Thai-Cambodian border province) of Thailand are considered. The results show that there are differences between the two different socio-environmental contextual settings with regard to farmers’ sustainable agricultural practice perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes. Farmers’ perceptions of environmental degradation, the number of years of agricultural experience, and agricultural policy drive farmers’ attitudes and individual sustainable practices. Another major result of the study is that individual farmers’ attitudes and practices promote collective sustainable agricultural behaviors. The implication of these findings is that it is necessary to improve the learning ability of individual farmers on the environment and sustainable agricultural practices through social learning and scientific knowledge dissemination, so as to produce sustainable collective development behaviors.

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    Regional landscape transformation and sustainability of the rural homegarden agroforestry system in the Chengdu Plain, China
    ZHOU Lian, HUANG Xueyuan, ZHAO Chunmei, PU Tiancun, ZHANG Lei
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 68-81.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.04.001
    Abstract236)   HTML4)    PDF (11842KB)(99)      

    Traditional rural homegarden agroforestry system in the Chengdu Plain of China, called “Linpan” in Chinese, integrates the ecological functions of the landscape with human production activities. Studying the driving mechanisms of rural landscape changes in the Chengdu Plain is of great significance from stakeholders’ perspective. Taking the Pidu Linpan Farming System (PLFS) in the suburban area of Chengdu (designated as one of China-Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems in 2020) as a case, this study combined remote sensing image analysis, oral history interviews, and focus group interviews to elucidate the driving forces of landscape changes in the PLFS. The results show that tourism development, traffic accessibility, economic demand, and agricultural heritage protection measure are the main driving forces promoting the stability and maintenance of the traditional homegardens. In contrast, population ageing, land circulation, centralized residence, climate change, and living and recreational need are the forces leading to adverse changes in the traditional homegardens. In addition, these driving forces have led to the gradual abandonment of traditional agricultural activities and critical issues related to rural landscape planning and management. The current research indicates that infrastructure construction and increased traditional agricultural income are considered as the best practices of local stakeholders, promoting the development of the protected homegardens of heritage sites and tourist destinations. Finally, we put forward some suggestions to improve and maintain the traditional rural landscape: (1) establishing a benefit-sharing mechanism; (2) establishing a training system with traditional technology and culture; (3) strengthening infrastructure construction; (4) promoting the development of the agricultural industry; (5) improving the cultural quality of farmers; and (6) establishing a management system with legal effects. This research can provide a basis for the formulation of rural landscape planning and the orderly and healthy development of agricultural heritage in Chengdu Plain.

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    Any alternatives to rice? Ethnobotanical insights into the dietary use of edible plants by the Higaonon tribe in Bukidnon Province, the Philippines
    Dave Paladin BUENAVISTA, Eefke Maria MOLLEE, Morag MCDONALD
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 95-109.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.04.002
    Abstract233)   HTML10)    PDF (2129KB)(39)      

    Though considered an agricultural country, the Philippines is the world’s largest importer of rice. The persistent problem of insufficient rice supply, however, has been exacerbated by economic crises and natural calamities. Yet, for the Higaonon tribe in Bukidnon Province, the Philippines, the rich agrobiodiversity and wild edible plants are vital for food security and resilience since the mountainous terrain in this province presents a challenge for rice cultivation. To gain insight from the indigenous edible plant knowledge of the Higaonon tribe, we conducted an ethnobotanical research to document the diversity, utilization, and biocultural refugia of both cultivated and wild edible plants. A total of 76 edible plant species belonging to 62 genera and 36 botanical families were documented. The most represented botanical families included the Fabaceae, Solanaceae, and Zingiberaceae. In terms of dietary usage, 3 species were categorized as cereals; 8 species were white roots, tubers, and plantains; 3 species were vitamin A-rich vegetables and tubers; 16 species were green leafy vegetables; 12 species were categorized as other vegetables; 2 species were vitamin A-rich fruits; 27 species were classified as other fruits; 7 species were legumes, nuts, and seeds; and 8 species were used as spices, condiments, and beverages. Using the statistical software R with ethnobotanyR package, we further calculated the ethnobotanical indices (use-report (UR), use-value (UV), number of use (NU), and fidelity level (FL)) from 1254 URs in all 9 food use-categories. The species with the highest UV and UR were from a variety of nutrient-rich edible plants such as Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Musa species, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, Zea mays L., and Manihot esculenta Crantz. The extensive utilization of root and tuber crops along with corn and plantain that contain a higher amount of energy and protein, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins were shown to be an important nutrient-rich alternatives to rice. Whilst males appeared to be more knowledgeable of edible plant species collected from the forests and communal areas, there were no significant differences between males and females in terms of knowledge of edible plants collected from homegardens, riverbanks, and farms. The various food collection sites of the Higaonon tribe may be considered as food biocultural refugia given their socio-ecological function in food security, biodiversity conservation, and preservation of indigenous knowledge.

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    Changes of water chemistry from rainfall to stream flow in Obagbile Catchment, Southwest Nigeria
    Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 170-181.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.07.006
    Abstract218)   HTML3)    PDF (946KB)(21)      

    Water chemistry changes when it flows through different pathways. This study aims to characterize the differences of water chemistry of five kinds of water in Obagbile Catchment including rainwater, overland flow, soil water, groundwater, and stream water, determine the changes in water chemistry that occur as the water moves from one pathway to another, and identify the factors responsible for the water chemistry changes. To do these, we collected 50 water samples from 10 heavy storms whose rainfall are equal to or more than 10 mm within an hour to test the changes of water properties across various pathways in this study. The results show that the overland flow had the highest pH and electrical conductivity (EC) and the rainwater had the lowest value of the two parameters. Ca2+, Mg2+, Clˉ, and HCOOˉ were found to have their highest concentrations in stream water; meanwhile, NO3-, NH4+, and SO42- were found to have almost same low concentrations in all the water samples. K+ was only dominant in stream water; while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was lowest in rainwater, same in overland flow, soil water, and groundwater samples, and highest in stream flow. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that for all the water samples from different pathways, two factors mainly accounted for the total variances. The two factors were related to the crustal and anthropogenic sources in rainwater suggesting that the high loadings of major cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) in rainwater samples are soil-derived. The PCA for the overland flow and soil water showed strong correlations between pH, EC, and the concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, HCOO-, and CH3COO-, while the high loadings of all the parameters and the strong correlations among each other were evident in the stream water. In conclusion, the chemical constituents found in water are also the constituents of pathways through which the water flows. The major factors responsible for the change in the physico-chemical properties of water in Obagbile Catchment are weathering and anthropogenic activities.

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    Assessing and mapping soil erosion risk zone in Ratlam District, central India
    Sunil SAHA, Debabrata SARKAR, Prolay MONDAL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 373-390.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.005
    Abstract216)   HTML5)    PDF (3236KB)(48)      

    Evaluation of physical and quantitative data of soil erosion is crucial to the sustainable development of the environment. The extreme form of land degradation through different forms of erosion is one of the major problems in the sub-tropical monsoon-dominated region. In India, tackling soil erosion is one of the major geo-environmental issues for its environment. Thus, identifying soil erosion risk zones and taking preventative actions are vital for crop production management. Soil erosion is induced by climate change, topographic conditions, soil texture, agricultural systems, and land management. In this research, the soil erosion risk zones of Ratlam District was determined by employing the Geographic Information System (GIS), Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and machine learning algorithms (Random Forest and Reduced Error Pruning (REP) tree). RUSLE measured the rainfall eosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), length of slope and steepness (LS), land cover and management (C), and support practices (P) factors. Kappa statistic was used to configure model reliability and it was found that Random Forest and AHP have higher reliability than other models. About 14.73% (715.94 km2) of the study area has very low risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 0.00-7.00×103 kg/(hm2·a), while about 7.46% (362.52 km2) of the study area has very high risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 30.00×103-48.00×103 kg/(hm2·a). Slope, elevation, stream density, Stream Power Index (SPI), rainfall, and land use and land cover (LULC) all affect soil erosion. The current study could help the government and non-government agencies to employ developmental projects and policies accordingly. However, the outcomes of the present research also could be used to prevent, monitor, and control soil erosion in the study area by employing restoration measures.

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