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    Dynamicity of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC): An analysis from peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Durgapur Municipal Corporation (DMC) in India
    Subrata HALDAR, Somnath MANDAL, Subhasis BHATTACHARYA, Suman PAUL
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 150-172.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.001
    Abstract228)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (9791KB)(6)       Save

    The availability of better economic possibilities and well-connected transportation networks has attracted people to migrate to peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods, changing the landscape of regions outside the city and fostering the growth of physical infrastructure. Using multi-temporal satellite images, the dynamics of Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) changes, the impact of urban growth on LULC changes, and regional environmental implications were investigated in the peri-urban and rural neighbourhoods of Durgapur Municipal Corporation in India. The study used different case studies to highlight the study area’s heterogeneity, as the phenomenon of change is not consistent. Landsat TM and OLI-TIRS satellite images in 1991, 2001, 2011, and 2021 were used to analyse the changes in LULC types. We used the relative deviation (RD), annual change intensity (ACI), uniform intensity (UI) to show the dynamicity of LULC types (agriculture land; built-up land; fallow land; vegetated land; mining area; and water bodies ) during 1991-2021. This study also applied the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) to measure environmental sensitivity zones and find out the causes of LULC changes. According to LULC statistics, agriculture land, built-up land, and mining area increased by 51.7, 95.46, and 24.79 km2, respectively, from 1991 to 2021. The results also suggested that built-up land and mining area had the greatest land surface temperature (LST), whereas water bodies and vegetated land showed the lowest LST. Moreover, this study looked at the relationships among LST, spectral indices (Normalized Differenced Built-up Index (NDBI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI)), and environmental sensitivity. The results showed that all of the spectral indices have the strongest association with LST, indicating that built-up land had a far stronger influence on the LST. The spectral indices indicated that the decreasing trends of vegetated land and water bodies were 4.26 and 0.43 km2/a, respectively, during 1991-2021. In summary, this study can help the policy-makers to predict the increasing rate of temperature and the causes for the temperature increase with the rapid expansion of built-up land, thus making effective peri-urban planning decisions.

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    Knowledge flow analysis of knowledge co-production-based climate change adaptation for lowland rice farmers in Bulukumba Regency, Indonesia
    Arifah, Darmawan SALMAN, Amir YASSI, Eymal Bahsar DEMMALLINO
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 194-202.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.005
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    To increase the resilience of farmers’ livelihood systems, detailed knowledge of adaptation strategies for dealing with the impacts of climate change is required. Knowledge co-production approach is an adaptation strategy that is considered appropriate in the context of the increasing frequency of disasters caused by climate change. Previous research of knowledge co-production on climate change adaptation in Indonesia is insufficient, particularly at local level, so we examined the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge in the knowledge co-production process through climate field school (CFS) activities in this study. We interviewed 120 people living in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, involving 12 crowds including male and female farmers participated in CFS and not participated in CFS, local government officials, agriculture extension workers, agricultural traders, farmers’ family members and neighbors, etc. In brief, the 12 groups of people mainly include two categories of people, i.e., people involved in CFS activities and outside CFS. We applied descriptive method and Social network analysis (SNA) to determine how knowledge flow in the community network and which groups of actors are important for knowledge flow. The findings of this study reveal that participants in CFS activities convey the knowledge they acquired formally (i.e., from TV, radio, government, etc.) and informally (i.e., from market, friends, relatives, etc.) to other actors, especially to their families and neighbors. The results also show that the acquisition and sharing of knowledge facilitate the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge based on knowledge co-operation. In addition, the findings highlight the key role of actors in the knowledge transfer process, and key actors involved in disseminating information about climate change adaptation. To be specific, among all the actors, family member and neighbor of CFS actor are the most common actors in disseminating climate knowledge information and closest to other actors in the network; agricultural trader and family member of CFS actor collaborate most with other actors in the community network; and farmers participated in CFS, including those heads of farmer groups, agricultural extension workers, and local government officials are more willing to contact with other actors in the network. To facilitate the flow of knowledge on climate change adaptation, CFS activities should be conducted regularly and CFS models that fit the situation of farmers’ vulnerability to climate change should be developed.

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    Socio-economic development of countries based on the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI)
    Kalamkas NURALINA, Raissa BAIZHOLOVA, Natalya ALEKSANDROVA, Viktor KONSTANTINOV, Alexander BIRYUKOV
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 115-128.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.005
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    World experience indicates the existence of significant imbalances in the development of countries. The problem of assessing the rational development of the regional and national economy is becoming urgent, since such assessments can prevent development imbalances across countries. The aim of this study is to elaborate a methodology to assess the countries’ socio-economic development by integraring 12 modern indices of socio-economic development into the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI). The methodology of this research was based on a set of key indices that described socio-economic development level in four fields (social development, digital development, economic development, and environmental security) and then these indices were integrated into the CCDI. The study further applied factor analysis and R-Studio software to define the gaps of social and economic development in 59 selected countries using the trigonometric function of the angle sine. The correlation analysis confirmed the existence of a close interrelation among the studied countries. This paper noted that due to the emergence of new priorities, it is necessary to revise the assessment methodology of socio-economic development level and expand them to cover the decisive factors. This was confirmed by the results obtained, demonstrating various combinations of the development level in the four fields and their impact on the CCDI. The scientific contribution of this research is to form a methodology (e.g., the CCDI) for evaluating the socio-economic development level of countries in the world.

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    Climate change risk, resilience, and adaptation among rural farmers in East Africa: A literature review
    Tobias ACKERL, Lemlem Fitwi WELDEMARIAM, Mary NYASIMI, Ayansina AYANLADE
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 185-193.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.004
    Abstract157)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (370KB)(8)       Save

    This study assesses the literature evidence on climate change risk, resilience, and adaptation measures used among rural farmers in East Africa. A systematic literature review was conducted comprising 30 papers from the Web of Science database published during 2000-2022. The results of the literature review showed that climate change risks have direct impacts on agricultural practices, limit rural farmers’ resilience, and exacerbate their food insecurity. The most prominent risks are increasingly shorter wet seasons and heat stress, which lead to droughts and food production losses. Responding to climate risks, farmers in East Africa adopt various adaptation strategies such as mixed- and inter-cropping, conservation tillage, early planting, crop diversification, etc. Also, this review summarizes the determinants of climate change adaptation strategy selection by farmers in East Africa, including age, gender, household size, economic status and household assets, landownership and livestock, education and training, etc. Overall, the choice of adaptation strategies to climate change is strongly determined by the gender of household heads, the results of gender as a determinant of adaptation differ greatly between different case studies. Although female-headed households (FHHs) tend to perceive changes in temperature more readily than male-headed households (MHHs), the latter are generally more likely to adopt different adaptation strategies. Despite the resilience and adaptation measures used by rural farmers in East Africa now, improved weather forecasting and early warning systems are needed as a better direction towards the future.

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    Overview of priorities, threats, and challenges to biodiversity conservation in the southern Philippines
    Angelo Rellama AGDUMA, Francisco Gil GARCIA, Ma. Teodora CABASAN, Jonald PIMENTEL, Renee Jane ELE, Meriam RUBIO, Sedra MURRAY, Bona Abigail HILARIO-HUSAIN, Kier Celestial Dela CRUZ, Sumaira ABDULLAH, Shiela Mae BALASE, Krizler Cejuela TANALGO
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 203-213.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.003
    Abstract140)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (574KB)(6)       Save

    Human activities have severely impacted on many species and ecosystems. Thus, understanding the local biodiversity situation is crucial for implementing effective biodiversity conservation interventions. Mindanao in the southern Philippines is home to various unique species, particularly in its pristine ecosystems. However, the available biodiversity data for many terrestrial vertebrates and key areas remain incomplete. To address this issue, we synthesized published literature related to biodiversity from 2000 to 2022 in Mindanao. Moreover, this analysis used four key terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) in Mindanao as research objects. According to our findings, there was a significant and positive correlation between the number of biodiversity studies and species recorded. In terms of species richness, birds were the most recorded group (n=334 spp.), followed by reptiles (n=108 spp.), mammals (n=70 spp.), and amphibians (n=52 spp.). We also found that the number of endemic and threatened species varies geographically and across taxonomic groups. Yet, we discovered a significant disparity in the information available on biodiversity in different provinces of Mindanao. For example, the western provinces of Mindanao have had no record of biodiversity for more than two decades. Furthermore, we found that the changes in tree cover loss were consistent with biodiversity records, but this correlation is only significant for birds. Finally, we highlighted some critical threats and challenges to biodiversity, including deforestation, agricultural expansion, mining, and their impact on biodiversity conservation in Mindanao. Our findings suggested that biodiversity conservation should focus not only on areas with high levels of biodiversity but also on areas lacking biodiversity information. To do this, we call for strengthening collaboration among various institutions and digitizing and centralizing of information related to biodiversity. By gaining a deeper understanding of biodiversity in Mindanao, we can better and sustainably protect critical ecosystems in this region from the increasing threats posed by human activities.

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    Impacts of climate change on the yields of leguminous crops in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana
    Enoch YELELIERE, Philip ANTWI-AGYEI, Frank BAFFOUR-ATA
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 139-149.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.04.002
    Abstract104)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (667KB)(10)       Save

    The impacts of climate change on crop yields are receiving renewed interest, with focus on cereals and staple crops at the regional and national scales. Yet, the impacts of climate change on the yields of leguminous crops in the local context has not been explored. Thus, an in-depth understanding of climate change in the local context may support the design of locally relevant adaptation responses to current and future climate risks. This study examined the impacts of climate variables (annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall indices (rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, and the length of rainy days), and the number of dry days) on the yields of leguminous crops (groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans) in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana during the period of 1989-2020. The data were analysed using Mann-Kendall’s trend, Sen’s slope test, correlation analysis, and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). The findings revealed that annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, and the length of rainy days, and the number of dry days all showed varied impacts on the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans. The trend analysis detected a marginal decrease in the amount of rainfall, rainfall onset, and the number of dry days from 1989 to 2020 (P>0.050). Annual average temperature and the length of rainy days substantially varied (P<0.050) from 1989 to 2020, showing an increasing trend. The findings also showed a marked upward trend for the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans during 2005-2020. The climate variables analysed above increased the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans by 49.0%, 55.0%, and 69.0%, respectively. The yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans fluctuated with the variability of 30.0%, 28.0%, and 27.0% from 2005 to 2020, respectively. The three leguminous crops under study demonstrated unpredictable yields due to the variations of annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, the length of rainy days, and the number of dry days, which stressed the need for agricultural diversification, changing planting dates, using improved seed variety, and irrigation to respond to climate change. The results of this study implied that climate change considerably impacts crop production in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana, emphasizing the urgency of locally based and farmer-induced adaptation measures for food security and resilient agricultural systems.

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    Evaluating rural sustainable land use from a system perspective based on the ecosystem service value
    LI Xiaokang, LEI Lin
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 96-114.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.002
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    Rural sustainable land use (RSLU) is important to China’s implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals and the goals of rural revitalization strategy in China. Research on RSLU is key to understanding the impact of human activities on rural sustainability. This paper explored the evaluation method of RSLU from a system perspective based on the ecosystem service value (ESV). Three systems were proposed for consideration when conducting this evaluation method. One was the sustainability of the land system, the other was the sustainability of the eco-economic system, and the rest was the sustainability of the land-eco-economy system. Indicators including (1) land use intensity and land system stability, (2) gross domestic production (GDP), ESV, and the eco-economic harmony degree (EEHD), and (3) coupling degree and coupling coordination degree were used to analyze the sustainability of the land, eco-economic, and land-eco-economic systems, respectively. An empirical research on Yanhe eco-village was conducted and the study period extended from 2008 to 2020. The results showed that forest land had always accounted for more than 81.20% of the total area in Yanhe eco-village from 2008 to 2020, which greatly influenced land system stability and restricted economic development. This feature contrasted with RSLU. The total ESV of Yanhe eco-village declined by 1.60×106 CNY during 2008-2020 because of land use changes. The EEHD was -0.01, which presented that there was a very slight unharmonious between ecology and economy. The coupling degree and coupling coordination degree showed that the development between the land and eco-economic systems exhibited a coupling coordination relationship. The results indicated that ecology and economy in Yanhe eco-village will change significantly in response to land use changes in rural areas, which further revealed the dynamic linkage between human beings and nature. Moreover, opposite variation tendencies in land system stability and ESV revealed that the contradiction between the high stability of the land system and well development of the eco-economic system. The results of this study implied that it is necessary and useful to integrate ESV into land management to achieve RSLU.

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    Production of Railwayscape in urban environment: Analysing railway heritage tourism potential in Siliguri City, India
    Iman BANERJEE
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.001
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    For a long time, it has been argued that the theories and practices devoted to urban planning and management should conform to the fundamental role of planning policies in the production of urban space, but not merely the spatial distribution of the produced services. Towards this wider connotation, this study introduces the notion of Railwayscape, grounded on the theory of ‘The Production of Space’, to examine the role of railway station districts as catalysts of urban development through the social production of urban space. The present research sets out to establish the notion of Railwayscape and apply it in a railway heritage, i.e., the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) and its point of inception, Siliguri City, India. Accordingly, a criteria-based evaluation of four railway station districts (New Jalpaiguri, Siliguri Town, Siliguri Junction, and Sukna) in Siliguri and its surroundings was performed. The information regarding the selected four railway station districts is obtained through field observation and key informant consultation, supplemented by published literature and remote sensing data. This evaluation is succeeded by the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis accentuating the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the selected four railway station districts and their prospects to become the potential Railwayscape. The results of this research show that there is no railway station district in Siliguri that can fully meet the demands of the locals and tourists, therefore, relfecting a lack of awareness of the historical values of these districts. The results also indicate that there are significant differences in the relative potentials of railway station districts to become the Railwayscape in urban environment. The outcomes of this research, therefore, are expected to encourage policy-making insitutions and practitioners to realise the ‘place value’ of some railway station districts and their potentials to yield better economic, social and structural virtue for a wide range of actors.

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    Is there regional convergence between Morocco and its OECD partner countries in terms of well-being?
    Ilyes BOUMAHDI, Nouzha ZAOUJAL
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 81-95.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.004
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    Morocco wants its 12 regions to play the role as the main lever of its public policies to initiate harmonized spatial multidimensional development. In the context of this goal and Morocco’s openness over the past two decades to bilateral and multilateral cooperation in an effort toward regional integration, this article studies the convergence of 389 regions in 36 countries (Morocco and 35 of its partner member countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)) between 2000 and 2019 in terms of well-being. To this end, we considered the territorial dimension of β-convergence models for well-being and its four domains (economic, social, environmental, and governance). Then, we adapted the absolute β-convergence model by taking into account the existence of spatial heterogeneity according to five specifications of spatial models. Thus, apart from environmental domain, we found that β-convergence of regions is significant for well-being and three of its domains (economic, social, and governance). These convergences are made by a spatially autocorrelated error model (SEM). However, the speed and period of convergence are relatively low for social domain, partly explaining the very exacerbated tensions at the territorial level. The fastest convergence was achieved in governance domain, followed by economic domain. This suggests that emerging countries must pay particular attention to national public action in favor of social cohesion at the territorial level. The lack of convergence in environmental domain calls for common actions for all countries at the supranational level to protect the commons at the territorial level.

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    Spatial restructuring and the logic of industrial land redevelopment in urban China: IV. A case study of jointly redevelopment by multi-actors
    GAO Jinlong
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 44-53.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.003
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    Within the inventory era, urban shrinkage characterized by economic decline and space decay has been widely witnessed in China. The modes and trajectories of urban redevelopment have thus become areas of major concern for both policymakers and scholars. Taking the multi-actor participation nature of redevelopment, this paper stemming from the game-theoretical approach demonstrates in empirical terms on two major fronts. First, the redevelopment of industrial land without the transfer of land use right is shown to be deadlocked by the incapacitation of the original land-user and unlocked with the participation of the new developer. Second, the preference of the original land-user to maximize its interests by operating by itself rather than continue to cooperate with the new developer is observed in the post-redevelopment stage. Therein, the entrepreneurial local government acts only as a “mediator” between the two market entities and tends not to directly intervene in their cooperation. Thus that, it is the reasonable distribution of potential benefits or the pricing of different rights in the land property right bundle rather than their definition that matters more for land redevelopment. Because the delineation of land property rights has never been a problem in a mature land market, particularly for stock industrial land.

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    Can environmental sustainability be decoupled from economic growth? Empirical evidence from Eastern Europe using the common correlated effect mean group test
    Kwaku ADDAI, Berna SERENER, Dervis KIRIKKALELI
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 68-80.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.003
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    The European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) aim to develop long-term policies for their respective member countries. Having observed increasing dangers to the environment posed by rising economic growth, they are seeking pathways to enable policy action on economic growth and environmental sustainability. Given the facts in theoretical and empirical studies, this study assessed the validity of the decoupling hypothesis by investigating asymmetricity in the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic growth in nine Eastern European countries from 1998 to 2017 using the cross-section augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) unit root, panel corrected standard error (PCSE), common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG), and Dumitrescu Hurlin causality approaches. Both population growth and drinking water are used as controlled variables. The outcomes establish strong cointegration among all the variables of interest. According to the results of CCEMG test, economic growth exerts short-term environmental degradation but has long-term environmental benefits in Eastern Europe; and population growth and drinking water exert a positive effect on environmental sustainability in both the short- and long-run. The results of Dumitrescu Hurlin causality test indicate that environmental sustainability is unidirectionally affected by economic growth. Based on these outcomes, we suggest the following policies: (1) the EU and OECD should implement member-targeted policies on economic growth and fossil-fuel use towards regulating industrial pollution, water use, and population control; and (2) the EU and OECD member countries should invest in environmental technologies through green research and development (R&D) to transform their dirty industrial processes and ensure productive energy use.

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    Evolution of economic linkage network of the cities and counties on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, China
    YANG Zeyu, ZHANG Shubao, LEI Jun, ZHANG Xiaolei, TONG Yanjun, DUAN Zuliang, FAN Liqin
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 173-184.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.002
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    The exchanges between cities and counties in the northern slope economic belt of Tianshan Mountains (NSEBTM) are increasingly frequent and the economic linkages are increasingly close, but the spatial distribution of economic development and linkages among the cities and counties within NSEBTM is uneven. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution of spatial-temporal pattern of the economic linkage network of cities and counties on NSEBTM to promote the coordinated and integrated development of the regional economy on NSEBTM. In this study, we used the modified gravity model and social network analysis method to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the economic linkage network structure of cities and counties on NSEBTM in 2000, 2010, and 2020. The results showed that the comprehensive development quality level of cities and counties on NSEBTM increased from 2000 to 2020, its growth rate also increased, and its gap between cities and counties continued expanding. Both the spatial distribution patterns of the comprehensive development quality level of cities and counties on NSEBTM in 2000 and 2010 were presented as “high in the middle and low at both ends”, while the spatial distribution pattern of 2020 was exhibited as “high value and low value staggered”. The total amount of external economic linkages of cities and counties on NSEBTM showed an obvious upward trend, and its gap between cities and counties continued expanding, presenting a pattern of “a strong middle section and weak ends”. The direction of economic linkages of NSEBTM existed obvious central orientation and geographical proximity. The density of economic linkage network of NSEBTM increased from 2000 to 2020, and the structure of economic linkage network changed from single-core structure centered with Urumqi City to multicore structure centered with Urumqi City, Karamay City, Shihezi City, and Changji City, shifting from unbalanced development to balanced development. In the future, we should accelerate the construction of urban agglomeration on NSEBTM, cultivate a modern Urumqi metropolitan area, improve comprehensive development quality of the cities and counties at the eastern and western ends, strengthen the intensity of economic linkages between cities and counties, optimize the economic linkage network, and promote the coordinated and integrated development of regional economy.

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    Students’ sustainability consciousness with the three dimensions of sustainability: Does the locus of control play a role?
    Durdana OVAIS
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 13-27.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.002
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    The persistent environmental problems and the growing difficulty to achieve sustainable development require a re-evaluation of person’ sustainable knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. To go to where we want to go, we must first assess where we are now. The study investigated the level of sustainability consciousness of students in India, and sustainability consciousness was expressed in sustainability knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. Sustainability consciousness was further examined using the three dimensions, such as environment, society, and economy. By drawing the perception map of students and studying the role of the locus of control, the reasons why sustainability knowledge does not appear in sustainability behaviour were analyzed. Quantitative analysis was conducted for a sample of 205 students from higher educational institutions across central India (Madhya Pradesh) from January to March in 2022. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 26 and Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3.0. The research revealed that sustainability attitude impacts sustainability behaviour more than sustainability knowledge. The results showed that respondents’ sustainability knowledge is higher than their sustainability attitude and behaviour. Moreover, it was discovered that economic concerns can lead to sustainability behaviour. In order to study respondents’ behaviour regarding sustainability consciousness, the study divided respondents into two groups according to the locus of control: the internal and external locus of control. It was found that most respondents thought whatever happened around them was beyond their control. Further, the locus of control influenced sustainability behaviour in groups with the internal locus of control. The study helps to explain why sustainability knowledge and attitude cannot translate into sustainability behaviour and provides a basis for achieving sustainable development. The conclusions of this study are crucial for governments, educational institutions, and organizations that empower youth to change their behaviour.

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    Spatio-temporal variation of water conservation and its impact factors on the southern slope of Qilian Mountains
    WEI Xingtao, Oliver Valentine EBOY, CAO Guangchao, XU Lu
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 54-67.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.001
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    The ecology of Qilian Mountains has been seriously threatened by uncontrolled grazing and wasteland reclamation. This study examined the ecological changes on the southern slope of Qilian Mountains in China from the perspective of water conservation by classifying different clusters of water conservation functional areas to efficiently use limited human resources to tackle the water conservation protection problem. In this study, we used Integrate Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to estimate water conservation and analyzed the factors that influence the function. The results of this study include: (1) from 2000 to 2015, the water conservation of the southern slope of Qilian Mountains generally showed an increasing trend, and the total water conservation in 2015 increased by 42.18% compared with that in 2000. (2) Rainfall, fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and evapotranspiration have the most significant influence on the water conservation of the study area. Among them, water conservation is positively correlated with rainfall and FVC (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with evapotranspiration (P<0.05). (3) The importance level of water conservation functional areas gradually increases from northwest to southeast, and the region surrounding Menyuan Hui Autonomous County in the southeast of the southern slope of Qilian Mountains is the core water conservation functional area. And (4) the study area was divided into five clusters (Cluster I-Cluster V) of water conservation, with the areas of Clusters I through V accounting for 0.58%, 13.74%, 41.23%, 32.43%, and 12.01% of the whole study area, respectively.

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    Synergies and trade-offs of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices selected by smallholder farmers in Geshy watershed, Southwest Ethiopia
    Girma TILAHUN, Amare BANTIDER, Desalegn YAYEH
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 129-138.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.04.001
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    Studies on mainstreaming climate-smart agriculture (CSA) practices can increase smallholder farmers’ capacity and awareness to improve food security and establish sustainable livelihoods through resilient agricultural systems, while achieving adaptation and mitigation benefits. Hence, valuable insights can be obtained from smallholder farmers in responding to present and forthcoming challenges of climate change impacts. However, there is little research work on trade-off and synergy assessments. Taking Geshy watershed in Southwest Ethiopia as a case study area, both quantitative and qualitative data analysis were undertaken in this study. The data were collected from 15 key informant interviews, 6 focus group discussions, and 384 households to answer the following questions: (1) what are the top 5 preferred CSA practices for smallholder farmers in Geshy watershed when coping with the impacts of climate change? (2) What is the performance of the preferred CSA practices? And (3) which trade-offs and synergies are experienced upon the implementation of CSA practices? The study came up with the most preferred CSA practices such as the use of improved crop varieties, small-scale irrigation, improved animal husbandry, the use of efficient inorganic fertilizers, and crop rotation with legumes. The selected CSA practices showed that the productivity goal exhibit the best synergy, while the mitigation goal has trade-offs. The study also indicated that the use of improved crop varieties causes high synergies in all 3 goals of CSA practices; small-scale irrigation provides a medium synergy on productivity goal but high synergy for adaptation and mitigation goals; improved animal husbandry shows a high synergy with the adaptation goal, a relatively lower synergy with the productivity goal, and a trade-off with the mitigation goal; the use of efficient inorganic fertilizers shows maximum synergy for the productivity and adaptation goals; and crop rotation with legumes exhibits high synergy with the productivity and mitigation goals but a relatively lower synergy with the adaptation goal. These results can provide evidence to various stakeholder farmers in the value chain that the impacts of climate change can be addressed by the adoption of CSA practices. In general, CSA practices are considered indispensable. Smallholder farmers prefer CSA practices that help to increase crop productivity and household resilience to climate change impacts. The results generate a vital foundation for recommendations to smallholder farming decision-makers. It also sensitizes actions for innovative and sustainable methods that are able to upscale the preferred CSA practices in the agricultural system in Geshy watershed of Southwest Ethiopia and other regions.

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    Impact of taxes on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Evidence from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries
    Md. Mominur RAHMAN
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (3): 235-248.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.07.001
    Abstract55)   HTML9)    PDF(pc) (724KB)(15)       Save

    Multiple ecological and socioeconomic problems have occurred worldwide, raising the awareness of sustainability. This study aims to examine the impact of taxes on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This research used effective average tax (EAT), tax on personal income (TPI), tax on corporate profits (TCP), and tax on goods and services (TGS) as the variables of taxes, and employed secondary data from 38 OECD countries covering 2000-2021. The study also used Breusch-Pagan Lagrange Multiplier (LM), Pesaran Scaled LM, Bias-Corrected Scaled LM, and Pesaran Cross-sectional dependence (CSD) tests to analyze the existence of cross-sectional dependency. Then, we established the stationarity of variables through second-generation panel unit root tests (Cross-sectional Augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) and Cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, and Shin (CIPS)), and confirmed the long-run cointegration of the variables by using second-generation panel cointegration test (Westerlund cointegration test). The results showed that EAT, TPI, TCP, and TGS are positively associated with SDGs. However, the change in TPI has a smaller effect on SDGs than the change in EAT or TCP or TGS. The result of panel causality indicated that EAT, TPI, and TGS have a unidirectional causal relationship with SDGs. The study also found that TCP has a bi-directional causal relationship with SDGs. Moreover, the finding indicated that the OECD countries need to focus on tax policies to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study is based on the theory of optimal taxation (TOT), which suggests that tax systems should be designed to maximize social welfare. Finally, we suggests the importance of taking a comprehensive approach for the managers and policy-makers when analyzing the impact of taxes on SDGs.

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    Environmental complaint insights through text mining based on the driver, pressure, state, impact, and response (DPSIR) framework: Evidence from an Italian environmental agency
    Fabiana MANSERVISI, Michele BANZI, Tomaso TONELLI, Paolo VERONESI, Susanna RICCI, Damiano DISTANTE, Stefano FARALLI, Giuseppe BORTONE
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (3): 261-281.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.08.002
    Abstract49)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (560KB)(6)       Save

    Individuals, local communities, environmental associations, private organizations, and public representatives and bodies may all be aggrieved by environmental problems concerning poor air quality, illegal waste disposal, water contamination, and general pollution. Environmental complaints represent the expressions of dissatisfaction with these issues. As the time-consuming of managing a large number of complaints, text mining may be useful for automatically extracting information on stakeholder priorities and concerns. The paper used text mining and semantic network analysis to crawl relevant keywords about environmental complaints from two online complaint submission systems: online claim submission system of Regional Agency for Prevention, Environment and Energy (Arpae) (“Contact Arpae”); and Arpae's internal platform for environmental pollution (“Environmental incident reporting portal”) in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy. We evaluated the total of 2477 records and classified this information based on the claim topic (air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution, waste, odor, soil, weather-climate, sea-coast, and electromagnetic radiation) and geographical distribution. Then, this paper used natural language processing to extract keywords from the dataset, and classified keywords ranking higher in Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) based on the driver, pressure, state, impact, and response (DPSIR) framework. This study provided a systemic approach to understanding the interaction between people and environment in different geographical contexts and builds sustainable and healthy communities. The results showed that most complaints are from the public and associated with air pollution and odor. Factories (particularly foundries and ceramic industries) and farms are identified as the drivers of environmental issues. Citizen believed that environmental issues mainly affect human well-being. Moreover, the keywords of “odor”, “report”, “request”, “presence”, “municipality”, and “hours” were the most influential and meaningful concepts, as demonstrated by their high degree and betweenness centrality values. Keywords connecting odor (classified as impacts) and air pollution (classified as state) were the most important (such as “odor-burnt plastic” and “odor-acrid”). Complainants perceived odor annoyance as a primary environmental concern, possibly related to two main drivers: “odor-factory” and “odors-farms”. The proposed approach has several theoretical and practical implications: text mining may quickly and efficiently address citizen needs, providing the basis toward automating (even partially) the complaint process; and the DPSIR framework might support the planning and organization of information and the identification of stakeholder concerns and priorities, as well as metrics and indicators for their assessment. Therefore, integration of the DPSIR framework with the text mining of environmental complaints might generate a comprehensive environmental knowledge base as a prerequisite for a wider exploitation of analysis to support decision-making processes and environmental management activities.

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    A new approach towards the sustainability of urban-rural integration: The development strategy for central villages in the Abbasiya District of Iraq using GIS techniques
    Ahmed Hussein ALLAWI, Haider Mohammed Jawad AL-JAZAERI
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 28-43.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus2023.02.004
    Abstract47)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (2621KB)(19)       Save

    The development of rural areas usually has a positive impact on the urban-rural integration. This study explores an innovative approach to stimulate rural development by proposing qualified villages as central villages that can provide basic urban services for their residents and residents of neighboring villages. This approach can contribute to overcoming the various problems that rural areas faced at the social, economic, and environmental levels. It seeks to achieve spatial sustainability of rural areas, representing a new approach by integrating urban development methods to revitalize rural villages. The study analyzed 15 villages belonging to Abbasiya District of AL Kufa City in the Najaf Governorate of Iraq. Based on the GIS techniques and the analysis of urban service indicators (village population, percentage of urban building materials used in villages, distance between village and health centers, distance between village and main roads, nature of economic activity, distance between village and educational institutions, distance between village and drinking water sources, number of communication towers, and distance between village and urban administrative center), this study proposed that Abu Gharb and Albu Ghraib can served as central villages in Abbasiya District in the future. This study establishes a new rural spatial structure to achieve rural sustainable development, improves the development status of rural areas, and provides a theoretical basis for the government and relevant institutions to use urban service indicators, achieving rural sustainable development and formulating relevant development policies in Abbasiya District.

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    Urban flood risk assessment under rapid urbanization in Zhengzhou City, China
    LI Guoyi, LIU Jiahong, SHAO Weiwei
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (3): 332-348.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.08.004
    Abstract40)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (6346KB)(5)       Save

    With accelerated urbanization and climate change, urban flooding is becoming more and more serious. Flood risk assessment is an important task for flood management, so it is crucial to map the spatial and temporal distribution of flood risk. This paper proposed an urban flood risk assessment method that takes into account the influences of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, by constructing a multi-index urban flood risk assessment framework based on Geographic Information System (GIS). To determine the weight values of urban flood risk index factors, we used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Also, we plotted the temporal and spatial distribution maps of flood risk in Zhengzhou City in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. The analysis results showed that, the proportion of very high and high flood risk zone in Zhengzhou City was 1.362%, 5.270%, 4.936%, 12.151%, and 24.236% in 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020, respectively. It is observed that the area of high flood risk zones in Zhengzhou City showed a trend of increasing and expanding, of which Dengfeng City, Xinzheng City, Xinmi City, and Zhongmu County had the fastest growth rate and the most obvious increase. The flood risk of Zhengzhou City has been expanding with the development of urbanization. The method is adapted to Zhengzhou City and will have good adaptability in other research areas, and its risk assessment results can provide a scientific reference for urban flood management personnel. In the future, the accuracy of flood risk assessment can be further improved by promoting the accuracy of basic data and reasonably determining the weight values of index factors. The risk zoning map can better reflect the risk distribution and provide a scientific basis for early warning of flood prevention and drainage.

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    Erratum regarding previously published articles
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (3): 215-217.   DOI: 10.1016/j.rejsus.2023.06.001
    Abstract37)   HTML11)    PDF(pc) (127KB)(10)       Save
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