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    Right-wing and populist support for climate mitigation policies: Evidence from Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 281-293.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.001
    Abstract539)   HTML6)    PDF (371KB)(43)      

    Research on environmental behaviour is often overlooked in literature on regime destabilization in energy transitions. This study addresses that gap by focusing on socio-political and demographic factors shaping support for carbon regime destabilization policies in one of the most carbon-intensive regions of Europe. Carbon-intensive industries, especially coal mining and coal-based power generation, are often concentrated in a few carbon-intensive regions. Therefore, decarbonization actions will affect those regions particularly strongly. Correspondingly, carbon-intensive regions often exert significant political influence on the two climate mitigation policies at the national level. Focusing on Poland, we investigate socio-political and demographic factors that correlate with the approval or rejection of the two climate mitigation policies: increasing taxes on fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal and using public money to subsidize renewable energy such as wind and solar power in Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region. Using logistic regression with individual-level data derived from the 2016 European Social Survey (ESS) and the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES), we find party-political ideology to be an important predictor at the national level but much less so at the regional level. Specifically, voting for right-wing party is not a divisive factor for individual support of the two climate mitigation policies either nationally or regionally. More interestingly, populism is a strong factor in support of increasing taxes on fossil fuel in the carbon-intensive Silesia region but is less important concerning in support of using public money to subsidize renewable energy in Poland overall. These results show the heterogeneity of right-wing party and populism within the support for the two climate mitigation policies. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, gender, education level, employment status, and employment sector, have even more complex and heterogeneous components in support of the two climate mitigation policies at the national and regional levels. Identifying the complex socio-political and demographic factors of climate mitigation policies across different national versus carbon-intensive regional contexts is an essential step for generating in situ decarbonization strategies.

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    A big-data approach for investigating destination image gap in Sanya City: When will the online and the offline goes parted?
    Lingkun Meng, Yi Liu, Yuanlei Wang, Xiaojuan Li
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 98-108.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.02.001
    Abstract427)   HTML2)    PDF (1186KB)(71)      

    Tourism destination images in terms of the gaps between the projected and perceived images are of great significance in the development of destinations. Additionally, the use of big-data in tourism studies remains under-utilized despite the boom in big-data applications and the increasing number of electronic User Generated Contents (UGC). Aiming to take advantage of tourism UGC to fully understand the destination image gap between official promotion materials and tourist perception of Sanya City in China, this study innovatively employed a big-data analysis technique, Tourism Sentiment Evaluation (TSE) model and proposed a new analysis framework integrating the “cognitive-affective” model with the gap analysis of projected and perceived destination image to explore the destination image gap of Sanya. It is found that Sanya’s perceptive destination image is overall consistent with its official positioning; however, there also exist image gaps between the two groups in terms of the impact of festival events and tourists’ attitude towards core scenic spots amongst others. This study’s findings are discussed in light of their methodological, theoretical, and practical implications for destination positioning, marketing, and management.

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    Digital mapping of soil salinization based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data combined with machine learning algorithms
    Guolin MA, Jianli DING, Lijng HAN, Zipeng ZHANG, Si RAN
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 177-188.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.06.001
    Abstract389)   HTML8)    PDF (2338KB)(116)      

    Soil salinization is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The dynamic monitoring of soil salinization is of great significance to land management, agricultural activities, water quality, and sustainable development. The remote sensing images taken by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 and the multispectral satellite Sentinel-2 with high resolution and short revisit period have the potential to monitor the spatial distribution of soil attribute information on a large area; however, there are limited studies on the combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 for digital mapping of soil salinization. Therefore, in this study, we used topography indices derived from digital elevation model (DEM), SAR indices generated by Sentinel-1, and vegetation indices generated by Sentinel-2 to map soil salinization in the Ogan-Kuqa River Oasis located in the central and northern Tarim Basin in Xinjiang of China, and evaluated the potential of multi-source sensors to predict soil salinity. Using the soil electrical conductivity (EC) values of 70 ground sampling sites as the target variable and the optimal environmental factors as the predictive variable, we constructed three soil salinity inversion models based on classification and regression tree (CART), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Then, we evaluated the prediction ability of different models through the five-fold cross validation. The prediction accuracy of XGBoost model is better than those of CART and RF, and soil salinity predicted by the three models has similar spatial distribution characteristics. Compared with the combination of topography indices and vegetation indices, the addition of SAR indices effectively improves the prediction accuracy of the model. In general, the method of soil salinity prediction based on multi-source sensor combination is better than that based on a single sensor. In addition, SAR indices, vegetation indices, and topography indices are all effective variables for soil salinity prediction. Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI) is designated as the most important variable in these variables, followed by DEM. The results showed that the high-resolution radar Sentinel-1 and multispectral Sentinel-2 have the potential to develop soil salinity prediction model.

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    Transaction costs for collaboration in the watershed management of the Cuyahoga River Area of Concern
    Scott Daniel HARDY
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 146-156.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.07.005
    Abstract379)   HTML2)    PDF (281KB)(34)      

    This study examines the transaction costs of collaborative watershed management in the Cuyahoga River Area of Concern (AOC)—one of the 43 geographic areas designated by the U.S. and Canada Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), where significant impairment of beneficial uses has occurred as a result of human activities. The Cuyahoga River is located in Northeast Ohio, the U. S. and flows through the City of Cleveland before draining into Lake Erie—one of the five Great Lakes of North America. The watershed is degraded due to municipal and agricultural discharges, streambank erosion, and contamination from urban and industrial sources. This research explores how a diverse group of stakeholders convened under the Cuyahoga River AOC Advisory Committee to share information, coordinate activities, agree on activities that restore beneficial uses, and support strategic management actions. In this study, 23 semi-structured interviews with members of the advisory committee were conducted between January 28, 2020 and April 20, 2020, with follow-up emails and phone calls as needed to corroborate information. A review of research articles and government documents supported the interviews, including United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and Ohio Environment Production Agency (OEPA) reports on the GLWQA and Cuyahoga River Remedial Action Plans. A third source of data is from direct participant observation at quarterly meetings of the advisory committee during 2017-2020, binational AOC conferences in 2017 and 2019, and other professional events geared towards restoring the Cuyahoga River AOC in 2016-2020. Results help to explain the collaborative process within the advisory committee and measure the institutional performance of the advisory committee in terms of efficiency, equitability, accountability, and adaptability. Results of this study include a set of recommendations to help guide group structure and decision-making processes, including (1) employing best available technology to organize AOC events and disseminate information; (2) supporting new members with an orientation and/or mentor to clearly define formal and informal committee rules; (3) assuring equal access to detailed information on management action plans with a real time dashboard; (4) updating voting procedures and the prioritization of management actions; and (5) better incorporating underrepresented local communities and high-level decision makers from municipalities, government agencies, and nongovernmental organizations located within the Cuyahoga River AOC.

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    Post-displacement status of climate migrants in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh
    Syed Mahbubur RAHMAN, Mahreen MAMOON, Md Shamimul ISLAM, Saif HOSSAIN, Rezwanul HAQUE, Abul Bashar Md ZUBAIR
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 183-187.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.09.002
    Abstract370)   HTML10)    PDF (331KB)(29)      

    Some big cities in Bangladesh have been experiencing a massive and rapid influx of rural people due to the impacts of climate change, and therefore the urban administration encounters enormous challenges. This study aims to investigate the drivers of climate-induced migration and the post-displacement status of the migrants living in the urban slum of Rajshahi City. Using a semi-structured questionnaire survey, this study conducted interviews with 50 migrants residing in two slums in Rajshahi City. An interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) approach was implemented to evaluate the survey data. This study finds that food insecurity and flood are the two significant climate drivers of migration. Among the non-climate drivers, lack of alternative livelihood is the major reason. It should be noticed that the climate migrants in many cases do not get the opportunity to improve their living standards; they are usually occupied with low-pay professions like maid, van and rickshaw puller, and scrap collector. The study also reveals that migrants, especially females and children, need several basic physiological, economic, social, and health services. Most children have no chance to attend school. Compared to males, females have more opportunities for some support and allowances. Overall, an inadequate level of change has taken place in the lives of migrants, which raises the concern if migration is ever a way to resolve a problem or the beginning of many other problems. Further researches may concentrate on the impact of migration on the dynamics of social capital among slum dwellers.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics of the coupling coordination of social security and economic development in China during 2002-2018
    Qiong LI, Yang ZHAO, Songlin LI, Lanlan ZHANG
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 116-129.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.04.001
    Abstract370)   HTML10)    PDF (2575KB)(162)      

    Clarifying the relationship between social security and economic development is helpful to realize the sustainable social security system and the stable function of sustainable economic development. In this paper, the entropy method, coupling coordination degree, standard deviation ellipse model, and spatial autocorrelation were used to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of coupling coordination of social security and economic development in China from 2002 to 2018. The results indicate that the relationship between social security and economic development in China has been gradually strengthened in the process of mutual adaptation and common development. The benign interaction between the two was unstable, though the coupling coordination degree gradually transitioned to the primary coupling coordination type. Besides, from a spatial perspective, first, the coupling coordination degree of social security and economic development in China contracted in the east-west and north-south directions, and the coupling coordination clustered in the central region in this period; second, the coupling coordination degree generally presented a positive spatial autocorrelation, and regions with similar coupling coordination degrees were in a state of agglomeration; finally, the hot spots clumped together to form a continuous area in the eastern coastal area while the cold spots expanded toward the northwest and northeast. Furthermore, the random distribution areas exhibited a trend of contraction.

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    From theme park to cultural tourism town: Disneyization turning of tourism space in China
    Zi’ang ZHANG, Zengxian LIANG, Jigang BAO
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 156-163.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.003
    Abstract368)   HTML5)    PDF (774KB)(251)      

    Theme park development has become an important choice for tourism space development in Chinese cities, and the theming of space as well as the implied consumption symbols and cultural implications are usually viewed as examples for the development of other urban spaces, such as cultural tourism towns. The result is the Disneyization of urban tourism space. With the construction of characteristic towns being vigorously promoted throughout China, cultural tourism towns are springing up. They are typical of the “Wuzhen Town Mode” and represent the process of the Disneyization of tourism space in China. This research reflects on the evolution of the characteristics of tourism space in China. Taking the Wuzhen Town Mode as an example, this study reveals the characteristics and conversion mechanism of the Disneyization of tourism space in Chinese cities. According to this research, the Wuzhen Town Mode of the Disneyization is characterized by theming, hybrid consumption, merchandising, and performative labor. Residential function is a unique characteristic of the Disneyization of cultural tourism towns in China. Moreover, the Wuzhen Town Mode of the Disneyization is jointly motivated by the driving force of local governments, the propulsive force of tourist demand, the attractive force of the social environment, and the driving force of capital. Finally, suggestions and policy proposals are provided for the Disneyization of tourism space in China.

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    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of nighttime urban vibrancy in central Shanghai inferred from mobile phone data
    ZHANG Yangfan, ZHONG Weijing, WANG De, LIN Feng-Tyan
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (4): 297-307.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.11.006
    Abstract361)   HTML12)    PDF (3263KB)(101)      

    In recent years, major cities around the world such as New York in USA, Melbourne in Australia, and Shanghai in China, have planned to boost their nighttime urban vibrancy levels to spur the economy and achieve cultural diversity. The study of nighttime urban vibrancy from the perspective of spatiotemporal characteristics is increasingly being recognized as part of the essential work in the field of urban planning and geography. This research used mobile phone signaling records to measure urban vibrancy in central Shanghai and revealed its spatiotemporal patterns during nighttime. Specifically, this research explored the changes of urban vibrancy within a day, studied the distribution of urban vibrancy during the nighttime, and visually presented the spatiotemporal changes of nighttime urban vibrancy in central Shanghai. Moreover, on the basis of the behavior pattern of each mobile user, we classified nighttime urban vibrancy into three different types: nighttime working vibrancy, nighttime leisure vibrancy, and nighttime floating vibrancy. We then tried to determine how land use affected nighttime leisure vibrancy. The results showed that urban vibrancy in central Shanghai exhibits a periodic pattern over one-day period. A high-level nighttime urban vibrancy belt is present within central Shanghai. Business offices, hotels, entertainment and recreational districts, wholesale markets, and express services contribute most to the vibrancy at nighttime. In addition, the correlation analysis shows that public and commercial facilities generate high levels of nighttime leisure vibrancy than residential facilities. The mixed land use of public and commercial facilities and residential facilities within 500 m is more critical than the mixed use of a single land lot. The research can be a basis for supporting land use planning and providing evidence for policy-making to improve the level of nighttime urban vibrancy in cities.

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    Export competitiveness of agricultural products and agricultural sustainability in China
    LONG Yulin
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (3): 203-210.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.09.001
    Abstract342)   HTML21)    PDF (9505KB)(56)      

    The competitiveness of a country’s agricultural products is not only related to its capacity to export agricultural products, but also to the sustainability of its agricultural sector. How to improve the international competitiveness of a country’s agricultural products while maintaining the sustainability of its agricultural sector is a practical problem of great urgency for a country with a large agricultural sector such as China. With this in mind, this study should have a considerable policy and practical significance. We used two evaluation indices, namely trade competitiveness (TC) index and revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index, to measure and analyze the international competitiveness of six China’s representative agricultural products, i.e., live pigs, live chickens, live cattle, apples, tea, and beer, and to examine the changing trends of these products’ competitiveness during 1994-2013. The results indicate that the export competitiveness of China’s agricultural products is weak and likely to deteriorate further. However, some traditional agricultural products with distinctive regional characteristics, for example, tea and live pigs, are relatively strong internationally. To this end, China should vigorously promote the production and foreign trade in traditional agricultural products with distinctive regional characteristics. At the same time, comprehensive measures should be taken to enhance the international competitiveness of disadvantaged agricultural products.

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    Assessment of ecosystem services value in response to prevailing and future land use/cover changes in Lahore, Pakistan
    Mobeen Akhtar, Yuanyuan Zhao, Guanglei Gao, Qudsia Gulzar, Azfar Hussain, Abdus Samie
    Regional Sustainability    2020, 1 (1): 37-47.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.06.001
    Abstract338)   HTML3)    PDF (1137KB)(171)      

    Land use/cover changes (LUCCs) significantly affect ecosystem services (ESs) and their corresponding monetary value. ESs can be evaluated to analyze the ecological and environmental changes caused by LUCCs. This research aims to estimate variations in the ecosystem services value (ESV) due to LUCCs in Lahore of Pakistan, and to offer information and recommendations to policy-makers concerned with the economic improvement of metropolis areas. We first investigated the historical LUCCs from 1990 to 2019, and then simulated the future land use/cover in 2030 and 2050 based on the CA-Markov model under three scenarios, including business-as-usual (BAU), rapid economic growth (REG), and coordinated environmental sustainability (CES). Subsequently, we evaluated the ESV from 1990 to 2050 and evaluated the historical and potential future ESV changes induced by LUCCs during 1990-2019 and 2019-2050, respectively. The results showed that, land use/cover exhibited an increase in built-up land and decreases in vegetation, water body, and unused land both in the past and future. The net ESV decreased from 58.26 million USD in 1990 to 50.31 million USD in 2019. In 2050, the decrease in ESV is most rapid under the REG scenario (decrease ESV of 7.13 million USD and decrease percentage of 14.18%), followed by the BAU (decrease ESV of 5.61 million USD and decrease percentage of 11.15%) and CES (decrease ESV of 5.18 million USD and decrease percentage of 10.30%) scenarios. For each ecosystem service type, the ESV of waste treatment decreased by 18.37% from 1990 to 2019, followed by soil formation and conservation (17.52%), biodiversity and maintenance (13.23%), climate regulation (11.80%), food production (11.69%), hydrological regulation (11.11%), and aesthetic value (3.07%). These outcomes indicate that continuous land use/cover planning should focus on regenerating aquatic areas and vegetation restoration.

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    Evaluation of carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change in Zhengzhou City of China
    HE Jianjian, ZHANG Pengyan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.002
    Abstract331)   HTML13)    PDF (3234KB)(123)      

    Studies on carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change (LUCC) are key to understanding the impact of human activities on regional sustainability. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial changes in carbon emissions associated with LUCC for production, living, and ecological spaces in Zhengzhou City of China. Landsat remote sensing images were used to classify the land use and land cover (LULC) types in Zhengzhou City in 1988, 2001, 2009, and 2015. Carbon emissions associated with LUCC were evaluated using a spatial gradient model and the niche mechanism. It was found that during 1988-2015, carbon emissions associated with LUCC in Zhengzhou City increased by 17.1×106 t, while the carbon sink resulted from cultivated land, forests, water bodies, and unused land decreased significantly. Most of the increase in carbon emissions associated with LUCC occurred in the center of the city. The peak carbon emissions were located in the northeastern, southeastern, northwestern, and southwestern regions of Zhengzhou City, and carbon emissions varied considerably in the different spatial gradient rings over time. Among the three spaces, carbon emissions associated with LUCC were mainly affected by the living space. The population size and population urbanization rate were negatively correlated with the ecological space and positively correlated with the production and living spaces. Our results highlight that Zhengzhou City should take the new urbanization path of urban transformation development and ecological civilization construction to ensure the realization of the promised carbon emission reduction targets.

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    Charging infrastructure planning for electric vehicle in India: Present status and future challenges
    Sulabh SACHAN, Praveen Prakash SINGH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 335-345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.008
    Abstract322)   HTML3)    PDF (584KB)(123)      

    The challenge to deal with environmental contamination along with national goals such as energy security, reliability, and self-dependency due to depleting fossil fuel resources has motivated researchers to find an alternate solution in the transport sector. Due to this, electrification of the transport sector has become an achievable solution that has caught attention with increasing penetration in the market share. India is a participant in the Paris Agreement which aims to curtail the production of greenhouse gases and limit the escalating temperature. Public intervention and changes in policy and regulations are the key aspects of technological transition. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, the consumers’ frame of mind concerns about adapting to e-mobility is anxiety over charging times and driving range. Thus, the development of charging stations plays a crucial role in promoting electric vehicles (EVs). This study investigates to identify different barriers that exist in the Indian context related to the adoption of e-mobility. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the recent developments in charging infrastructure planning in India. Also, the status of installed charging stations is examined. Developing appropriate charging stations are associated with several challenges, which are also highlighted to provide guidance to public and private entities that can be adopted in their respective business model. As India has the second largest population and is the seventh largest country in the world, the EV adoption rate of India is considerably low compared to other countries; for India, there is a long way to match the growth rate of EV adoption. Hence it becomes essential to develop a robust and suitable charging infrastructure to promote the sale and use of EVs in India.

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    Purchase willingness of new energy vehicles: A case study in Jinan City of China
    Xueqing Tian, Qingling Zhang, Yuzhu Chi, Yu Cheng
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 12-22.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.12.003
    Abstract319)   HTML7)    PDF (802KB)(143)      

    Speeding up the promotion of new energy vehicles is an important measure to optimize the energy structure, promote energy conservation and emission reduction, and develop the economy sustainability. The research uses a questionnaire survey to analyze the residents’ willingness to purchase new energy vehicles in Jinan City of China, and utilizes the binomial logistic regression model and Global Moran’s I to explain the impact of three factors (including respondents’ personal characteristics and subjective cognition, products, and social environment) on the purchase willingness of new energy vehicles. According to the survey, 75.12% of the respondents consider buying new energy vehicles in the future, but only 11.66% of the respondents know new energy vehicles well. It can be seen that the respondents in Jinan City generally have an insufficient understanding of new energy vehicles. It may lead to a decline in residents’ trust in new energy vehicles, which will in turn affect their purchase willingness. Based on the survey, we find that women who live far from the city center enjoy high incomes and have a low-carbon awareness, generally exhibit a higher willingness to purchase new energy vehicles. Spatial distribution of the purchase willingness has certain aggregation characteristics, showing a positive spatial correlation pattern. Purchase willingness has a certain positive diffusion effect in space, and areas with a higher purchase willingness have a positive driving effect on their surrounding regions. Spatial distribution of the purchase willingness can be used as one of the breakthroughs in promoting new energy vehicles. In addition, safety, price, after-sales service, and infrastructure of new energy vehicles are important determinants of people’s purchase willingness. Among the types of subsidies, financial subsidy is most effective on the residents’ purchase willingness. Our research provides an important information for the promotion of new energy vehicles in the region.

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    Sustainable use of wildlife resources in Central Asia
    David BLANK, Yaoming LI
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 144-155.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.001
    Abstract319)   HTML5)    PDF (316KB)(90)      

    Initially, hunting was the primary means for getting food for the survival of ancient people. As time passed, people started to breed livestock and develop agriculture, gradually reducing their reliance on unpredictability of hunting. People, however, continued to hunt and, even though their survival did not depend on hunting. During the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) period, attitudes toward the use of natural resources fluctuated significantly, and after the establishment of new reserves for wildlife protection, the government soon weakened protections it had introduced. In the current, the organizations in dependent countries of the USSR that are chartered to protect areas with wildlife diversity are very weak and have no sufficient material resources to provide any real control of poaching, especially when hunting weapons and ammunition are easily available. Trophy hunting companies exploit wildlife resources but do not make protecting wildlife from poaching as a priority in their work; they just use whatever resources are available as if they are unlimited. To help solve this problem, we suggest to organize the local people to join the wildlife protection societies and give them official rights to benefit from the development of hunting tourism in the future. There are numerous examples of successful and very profitable hunting businesses in different countries in the world. In Central Asia, all the prerequisites exist for organizing highly effective trophy hunting tourism, maintaining the richness of biodiversity, and at the same time providing a sustainable and significant income for local communities as the country as a whole. The sustainable use of wildlife resources is a very tangible challenge in the countries of Central Asia, and the most important consideration is to establish and enforce hunting laws equally, irrespective of a person’s social status or financial assets, otherwise no laws will work.

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    Dynamics of NDVI and its influencing factors in the Chinese Loess Plateau during 2002-2018
    Peng He, Lishuai Xu, Zhengchun Liu, Yaodong Jing, Wenbo Zhu
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 36-46.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.01.002
    Abstract312)   HTML7)    PDF (3979KB)(216)      

    Understanding the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation and its climatic control factors can provide an important theoretical basis for the protection and restoration of eco-environments. In this study, we analyzed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) from 2002 to 2018 via trend analysis, stability analysis, and Mann-Kendall mutation test to investigate the change of vegetation. In addition, we also used the skewness analysis and correlation analysis to explore the contribution of climate change and human activities on regional vegetation changes. The results indicated that the overall increasing trend of NDVI from 2002 to 2018 was significant. The areas showing increased NDVI were mainly distributed in the southeastern CLP and the irrigation districts of the Yellow River to the north and west of the CLP, while the areas showing decreased NDVI were concentrated in the desert of the western Ordos Plateau, Longzhong Loess Plateau, and the built-up and adjacent areas. Precipitation was the dominant factor contributing to vegetation growth in the CLP, while vegetation was less dependent on precipitation in the irrigation districts. The increasement of NDVI has led to a prolonged response time of vegetation to water stress and a lag effect of less than two months in the CLP. The effect of temperature on NDVI was not significant; significant negative correlations between NDVI and temperature were found only in the desert, the Guanzhong Plain, the southern Liupan Mountains, and the southeastern Taihang Mountains, owing to high temperatures, urban heat islands, and large cloud cover in mountainous areas. Affected by the “Grain for Green Program” (GGP), NDVI in the CLP increased from 2002 to 2018; however, the increasing trends of NDVI for different vegetation cover types were significantly different owing to the difference in background status. The increasing contribution rate of NDVI in the CLP mainly came from crops and steppes. Urban not only led to the destruction of vegetation but also had radiation effect causing negative impact of NDVI around the cities. This resulted in the aggravation of the negative bias of NDVI with time in the CLP. The results provide a long-term perspective for regional vegetation protection and utilization in the CLP.

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    Spatio-temporal characteristics of regional sustainable economic growth drivers of China
    WANG Linchuan, WU Cisheng, ZHAO Xuyang, LIU Duanyong, ZHANG Tao
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (3): 239-255.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.11.004
    Abstract309)   HTML13)    PDF (1357KB)(58)      

    Intellectual capital (IC) has become a universal performance indicator for the socioeconomic development of countries and regions. Based on a review of national intellectual capital (NIC) and regional intellectual capital (RIC) evaluation literature, we used the regional intellectual capital indicator (RICI) as a model for China’s RIC evaluation to indirectly understand China’s potential economic growth drivers. Specifically, we collected statistical data of 31 provinces (including municipalities and autonomous regions) in China from 2004 to 2016 to measure RICI and analyze its dynamic characteristics from temporal and spatial perspectives. In this paper, Delphi analysis was used to construct RICI model, and cluster analysis and exploratory spatial data analysis were used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of RICI in China. The results showed that RICI, which represents China’s overall economic growth drivers, increases annually and is consistent with economic development level during the study period. Regarding the geo-spatial space, RICI follows the trend of “high in the east and low in the west”, gradually decreasing from eastern to western China. For RIC structure, the shape of the radar chart of IC structure located in the eastern coastal areas is usually biased towards strong external relational capital, while that in western China is generally biased towards structural capital. For spatial correlation, China’s RICI has dependence on geographical adjacent space and economic space. Our research can provide policy suggestions for the sustainable development of regional economy from an IC perspective.

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    Exploration of the dynamic water resource carrying capacity of the Keriya River Basin on the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert, China
    Shuhong Yang, Tao Yang
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 73-82.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.01.005
    Abstract307)   HTML6)    PDF (934KB)(124)      

    The water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) in river basin changes dynamically under climate change, economic development, and technological advancement. Climate change affects hydrological processes and spatial/temporal distribution of water resources; while economic development and technological advancement can also affect the balance of water resources systems. Under climate change, economic development, and technological advancement, it is of great significance to explore the dynamic behavior of WRCC in river basins. This will help to alleviate water resources security issues and build a sustainable water resources system. This study was carried out to evaluate the dynamic WRCC using the “climate, economics, and technology-control objective inversion model”, which used total water consumption, water-use efficiency, and restrained total pollutant control in the water functional area as boundary conditions. This study was conducted on the Keriya River Basin, a sub-catchment located in southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert. The WRCC in the Keriya River Basin in 2015 was calculated, and the trends in the short term (2020), middle term (2030), and long term (2050) were predicted. The results revealed that climate change factors have a positive effect on WRCC in the Keriya River Basin, which leads to an increase in total water resources. Economic and technological development exhibits an overall positive effect, while increasing in water consumption and sewage discharge exhibit a negative effect.

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    Towards a sustainable campus-city relationship: A systematic review of the literature
    Ahmed Mohammed Sayed MOHAMMED, Tetsuya UKAI, Michael HALL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.004
    Abstract305)   HTML3)    PDF (1170KB)(98)      

    The relationship between a university and its city is considered strategical to achieve university targeted ambitions and visions. The university-city relationship is also encouraged for the benefit of the city, as universities unleash their respective cities’ potentials to act as driving forces not only for their local communities, but also for the whole nation. Therefore, maintaining a mutual relationship between the university and the city is considered essential to accomplish strategic goals for both. However, the nature of this relationship is quite complex, overlapped, interconnected, and diverse. Therefore, this paper conducted a systematic review of the literature on university-city and campus-city relationships to evaluate recent research trends to uncover the aspects that connect universities with their respective cities. The search included articles published in 4 different databases from January 1990 to January 2021. A total number of 50 articles were selected in this review. The findings uncovered different aspects that could help or hinder university-city relationship based on the physical and functional linkage between the campus and the city. Moreover, findings have shown that it is necessary to understand universities according to their contextual differences, as universities have shown different impacts on their respective cities in terms of their sizes and locations. Results have also shown that the impact of the physical connection between the university and the city goes far beyond campus’s accessibility as it deeply affects students’ social life as well. Therefore, decision makers, stakeholders, and university administrators need to co-design campus development process especially in the early stages to maximize the mutual benefits of campus-city relationship. The main conclusions of this paper address several perspectives and lessons for a more sustainable campus-city relationship.

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    Nexus between selected macroeconomic variables and carbon emission in Kenya
    James NJUMWA, Ernest SAINA, Alfred SEREM
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 233-243.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.003
    Abstract303)   HTML2)    PDF (419KB)(7)      

    Agriculture is not only influenced by climate change, but it is also one of the significant contributors of CO2 emission. Understanding CO2 emission and macroeconomic variables is critical to solving the challenges and threats faced by Kenya’s agriculture and environment. This study used the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis and the autoregressive distribution lag model (ADLM) to analyze the relationships of CO2 emission with agricultural output, government direct investment, trade openness, and inflation rate in Kenya from 1983 to 2019. The study found that there exists a positive (direct) relationship between CO2 emission and foreign direct investment in the long run in Kenya. Additionally, CO2 emission and trade openness have a negative (indirect) and statistically significant relationship after the error correction term adjustment in the long run. Moreover, the relationship between CO2 emission and agricultural output is positive (direct) and statistically significant in the long run. There is a positive (direct) and statistically insignificant relationship between CO2 emission and inflation rate in the short run. Notably, the EKC hypothesis indicated that the Kenya’s economy is still on the environmental degradation trade-off through the gradual increase of both CO2 emission and agricultural output. Our results are important to Kenya’s economy because the derived insights will assist in relevant departments to formulate sustainable strategies to minimize environmental degradation.

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    Measurement and influencing factors of urban traffic ecological resilience in developing countries: A case study of 31 Chinese cities
    HU Xiwu, SU Yunqing, REN Kefeng, SONG Fang, XUE Ruixiang
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (3): 211-223.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.10.001
    Abstract301)   HTML6)    PDF (1211KB)(66)      

    An urban traffic ecosystem is a spatial structure composed of air, population, vehicles, roads, green spaces, and regions. Traffic ecological resilience is a critical issue in high-quality urban development. From the perspective of system optimization, it is important to study the level of urban traffic ecological resilience and analyze its influencing factors. In this study, we evaluated traffic ecological resilience, characterized its spatio-temporal differentiation, and explored its influencing factors by constructing a system of urban traffic ecological resilience and by analyzing the environmental protection and urban construction data in 31 Chinese cities during 2011-2018. By conducting Kernel density analysis, standard deviation ellipse, comprehensive weight determination, panel data regression analysis, and χ2 test, we found that traffic ecological resilience was low on the whole and exhibited the temporal trend of “decreasing first and then increasing” and the spatial characteristic of “high in the east, second in the middle, and low in the west”. The cities with high traffic ecological resilience density values were located in Southeast China and tended to move from northwest to southeast. Governance capability, market activity, technological innovation capability, opening degree, and financial resources had significant effects on urban traffic ecological resilience. Finally, we gave some suggestions for improving the urban traffic ecological resilience in Chinese cities as well as other developing countries in the world.

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