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    Charging infrastructure planning for electric vehicle in India: Present status and future challenges
    Sulabh SACHAN, Praveen Prakash SINGH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 335-345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.008
    Abstract327)   HTML3)    PDF (584KB)(125)      

    The challenge to deal with environmental contamination along with national goals such as energy security, reliability, and self-dependency due to depleting fossil fuel resources has motivated researchers to find an alternate solution in the transport sector. Due to this, electrification of the transport sector has become an achievable solution that has caught attention with increasing penetration in the market share. India is a participant in the Paris Agreement which aims to curtail the production of greenhouse gases and limit the escalating temperature. Public intervention and changes in policy and regulations are the key aspects of technological transition. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, the consumers’ frame of mind concerns about adapting to e-mobility is anxiety over charging times and driving range. Thus, the development of charging stations plays a crucial role in promoting electric vehicles (EVs). This study investigates to identify different barriers that exist in the Indian context related to the adoption of e-mobility. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the recent developments in charging infrastructure planning in India. Also, the status of installed charging stations is examined. Developing appropriate charging stations are associated with several challenges, which are also highlighted to provide guidance to public and private entities that can be adopted in their respective business model. As India has the second largest population and is the seventh largest country in the world, the EV adoption rate of India is considerably low compared to other countries; for India, there is a long way to match the growth rate of EV adoption. Hence it becomes essential to develop a robust and suitable charging infrastructure to promote the sale and use of EVs in India.

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    Land tenure security, place satisfaction and loyalty in the peri-urban area of Ibadan City, Nigeria
    Taiwo Oladapo BABALOLA
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 346-355.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.004
    Abstract182)   HTML2)    PDF (406KB)(83)      

    Land tenure security is pertinent to achieving the sustainable development agenda in cities where land is needed and useful for development purposes. Sufficient empirical research has been done to prove the importance of tenure security for investment, resilience, conservation, food security, as well as health and well-being, but it has not been clarified if and how land tenure security could adequately influence place loyalty and satisfaction with the residential environment, as it is clear that place loyalty and satisfaction are pertinent to inclusive development. Using the case of Ibadan City, the study examined how different dimensions of tenure security could determine residents’ place loyalty and satisfaction. The study employed a survey cross-sectional research design to distribute 514 structured questionnaires to household heads across 4 sampled peri-urban local government areas while 452 were retrieved for analysis. Hierarchical regression analysis model was employed to understand the association between tenure security dimensions and satisfaction (as model I) and loyalty (as model II). For model I, F=8.640, P=0.000, R=0.555, and R2=0.308 were obtained; while for model II, F=9.157, P=0.001, R=0.415, and R2=0.173 were acquired. This thus means that residents’ place loyalty and satisfaction can partly be explained by tenure security. In particular, respondents with no eviction experience, recognized property rights, and invulnerable to eviction have higher odds of being satisfied and loyal. Therefore, we recommend protection, improvement, and upgrading of land tenure security as one of the means to promote place loyalty and satisfaction, which is essential to achieving inclusive and sustainable development.

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    Assessing and mapping soil erosion risk zone in Ratlam District, central India
    Sunil SAHA, Debabrata SARKAR, Prolay MONDAL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 373-390.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.005
    Abstract224)   HTML5)    PDF (3236KB)(50)      

    Evaluation of physical and quantitative data of soil erosion is crucial to the sustainable development of the environment. The extreme form of land degradation through different forms of erosion is one of the major problems in the sub-tropical monsoon-dominated region. In India, tackling soil erosion is one of the major geo-environmental issues for its environment. Thus, identifying soil erosion risk zones and taking preventative actions are vital for crop production management. Soil erosion is induced by climate change, topographic conditions, soil texture, agricultural systems, and land management. In this research, the soil erosion risk zones of Ratlam District was determined by employing the Geographic Information System (GIS), Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and machine learning algorithms (Random Forest and Reduced Error Pruning (REP) tree). RUSLE measured the rainfall eosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), length of slope and steepness (LS), land cover and management (C), and support practices (P) factors. Kappa statistic was used to configure model reliability and it was found that Random Forest and AHP have higher reliability than other models. About 14.73% (715.94 km2) of the study area has very low risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 0.00-7.00×103 kg/(hm2·a), while about 7.46% (362.52 km2) of the study area has very high risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 30.00×103-48.00×103 kg/(hm2·a). Slope, elevation, stream density, Stream Power Index (SPI), rainfall, and land use and land cover (LULC) all affect soil erosion. The current study could help the government and non-government agencies to employ developmental projects and policies accordingly. However, the outcomes of the present research also could be used to prevent, monitor, and control soil erosion in the study area by employing restoration measures.

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    Students’ sustainability consciousness with the three dimensions of sustainability: Does the locus of control play a role?
    Durdana OVAIS
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 13-27.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.002
    Abstract45)   HTML113)    PDF (357KB)(47)      

    The persistent environmental problems and the growing difficulty to achieve sustainable development require a re-evaluation of person’ sustainable knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. To go to where we want to go, we must first assess where we are now. The study investigated the level of sustainability consciousness of students in India, and sustainability consciousness was expressed in sustainability knowledge, attitude, and behaviour. Sustainability consciousness was further examined using the three dimensions, such as environment, society, and economy. By drawing the perception map of students and studying the role of the locus of control, the reasons why sustainability knowledge does not appear in sustainability behaviour were analyzed. Quantitative analysis was conducted for a sample of 205 students from higher educational institutions across central India (Madhya Pradesh) from January to March in 2022. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 26 and Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) 3.0. The research revealed that sustainability attitude impacts sustainability behaviour more than sustainability knowledge. The results showed that respondents’ sustainability knowledge is higher than their sustainability attitude and behaviour. Moreover, it was discovered that economic concerns can lead to sustainability behaviour. In order to study respondents’ behaviour regarding sustainability consciousness, the study divided respondents into two groups according to the locus of control: the internal and external locus of control. It was found that most respondents thought whatever happened around them was beyond their control. Further, the locus of control influenced sustainability behaviour in groups with the internal locus of control. The study helps to explain why sustainability knowledge and attitude cannot translate into sustainability behaviour and provides a basis for achieving sustainable development. The conclusions of this study are crucial for governments, educational institutions, and organizations that empower youth to change their behaviour.

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    Right-wing and populist support for climate mitigation policies: Evidence from Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region
    Mahir YAZAR, Lukas HERMWILLE, Håvard HAARSTAD
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 281-293.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.001
    Abstract540)   HTML6)    PDF (371KB)(45)      

    Research on environmental behaviour is often overlooked in literature on regime destabilization in energy transitions. This study addresses that gap by focusing on socio-political and demographic factors shaping support for carbon regime destabilization policies in one of the most carbon-intensive regions of Europe. Carbon-intensive industries, especially coal mining and coal-based power generation, are often concentrated in a few carbon-intensive regions. Therefore, decarbonization actions will affect those regions particularly strongly. Correspondingly, carbon-intensive regions often exert significant political influence on the two climate mitigation policies at the national level. Focusing on Poland, we investigate socio-political and demographic factors that correlate with the approval or rejection of the two climate mitigation policies: increasing taxes on fossil fuels such as oil, gas, and coal and using public money to subsidize renewable energy such as wind and solar power in Poland and its carbon-intensive Silesia region. Using logistic regression with individual-level data derived from the 2016 European Social Survey (ESS) and the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES), we find party-political ideology to be an important predictor at the national level but much less so at the regional level. Specifically, voting for right-wing party is not a divisive factor for individual support of the two climate mitigation policies either nationally or regionally. More interestingly, populism is a strong factor in support of increasing taxes on fossil fuel in the carbon-intensive Silesia region but is less important concerning in support of using public money to subsidize renewable energy in Poland overall. These results show the heterogeneity of right-wing party and populism within the support for the two climate mitigation policies. Socio-demographic factors, especially age, gender, education level, employment status, and employment sector, have even more complex and heterogeneous components in support of the two climate mitigation policies at the national and regional levels. Identifying the complex socio-political and demographic factors of climate mitigation policies across different national versus carbon-intensive regional contexts is an essential step for generating in situ decarbonization strategies.

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    Can environmental sustainability be decoupled from economic growth? Empirical evidence from Eastern Europe using the common correlated effect mean group test
    Kwaku ADDAI, Berna SERENER, Dervis KIRIKKALELI
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 68-80.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.003
    Abstract56)   HTML3)    PDF (801KB)(42)      

    The European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) aim to develop long-term policies for their respective member countries. Having observed increasing dangers to the environment posed by rising economic growth, they are seeking pathways to enable policy action on economic growth and environmental sustainability. Given the facts in theoretical and empirical studies, this study assessed the validity of the decoupling hypothesis by investigating asymmetricity in the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic growth in nine Eastern European countries from 1998 to 2017 using the cross-section augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) unit root, panel corrected standard error (PCSE), common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG), and Dumitrescu Hurlin causality approaches. Both population growth and drinking water are used as controlled variables. The outcomes establish strong cointegration among all the variables of interest. According to the results of CCEMG test, economic growth exerts short-term environmental degradation but has long-term environmental benefits in Eastern Europe; and population growth and drinking water exert a positive effect on environmental sustainability in both the short- and long-run. The results of Dumitrescu Hurlin causality test indicate that environmental sustainability is unidirectionally affected by economic growth. Based on these outcomes, we suggest the following policies: (1) the EU and OECD should implement member-targeted policies on economic growth and fossil-fuel use towards regulating industrial pollution, water use, and population control; and (2) the EU and OECD member countries should invest in environmental technologies through green research and development (R&D) to transform their dirty industrial processes and ensure productive energy use.

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    Evaluating rural sustainable land use from a system perspective based on the ecosystem service value
    LI Xiaokang, LEI Lin
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 96-114.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.002
    Abstract77)   HTML7)    PDF (1139KB)(41)      

    Rural sustainable land use (RSLU) is important to China’s implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals and the goals of rural revitalization strategy in China. Research on RSLU is key to understanding the impact of human activities on rural sustainability. This paper explored the evaluation method of RSLU from a system perspective based on the ecosystem service value (ESV). Three systems were proposed for consideration when conducting this evaluation method. One was the sustainability of the land system, the other was the sustainability of the eco-economic system, and the rest was the sustainability of the land-eco-economy system. Indicators including (1) land use intensity and land system stability, (2) gross domestic production (GDP), ESV, and the eco-economic harmony degree (EEHD), and (3) coupling degree and coupling coordination degree were used to analyze the sustainability of the land, eco-economic, and land-eco-economic systems, respectively. An empirical research on Yanhe eco-village was conducted and the study period extended from 2008 to 2020. The results showed that forest land had always accounted for more than 81.20% of the total area in Yanhe eco-village from 2008 to 2020, which greatly influenced land system stability and restricted economic development. This feature contrasted with RSLU. The total ESV of Yanhe eco-village declined by 1.60×106 CNY during 2008-2020 because of land use changes. The EEHD was -0.01, which presented that there was a very slight unharmonious between ecology and economy. The coupling degree and coupling coordination degree showed that the development between the land and eco-economic systems exhibited a coupling coordination relationship. The results indicated that ecology and economy in Yanhe eco-village will change significantly in response to land use changes in rural areas, which further revealed the dynamic linkage between human beings and nature. Moreover, opposite variation tendencies in land system stability and ESV revealed that the contradiction between the high stability of the land system and well development of the eco-economic system. The results of this study implied that it is necessary and useful to integrate ESV into land management to achieve RSLU.

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    Is there regional convergence between Morocco and its OECD partner countries in terms of well-being?
    Ilyes BOUMAHDI, Nouzha ZAOUJAL
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 81-95.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.004
    Abstract61)   HTML5)    PDF (473KB)(40)      

    Morocco wants its 12 regions to play the role as the main lever of its public policies to initiate harmonized spatial multidimensional development. In the context of this goal and Morocco’s openness over the past two decades to bilateral and multilateral cooperation in an effort toward regional integration, this article studies the convergence of 389 regions in 36 countries (Morocco and 35 of its partner member countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)) between 2000 and 2019 in terms of well-being. To this end, we considered the territorial dimension of β-convergence models for well-being and its four domains (economic, social, environmental, and governance). Then, we adapted the absolute β-convergence model by taking into account the existence of spatial heterogeneity according to five specifications of spatial models. Thus, apart from environmental domain, we found that β-convergence of regions is significant for well-being and three of its domains (economic, social, and governance). These convergences are made by a spatially autocorrelated error model (SEM). However, the speed and period of convergence are relatively low for social domain, partly explaining the very exacerbated tensions at the territorial level. The fastest convergence was achieved in governance domain, followed by economic domain. This suggests that emerging countries must pay particular attention to national public action in favor of social cohesion at the territorial level. The lack of convergence in environmental domain calls for common actions for all countries at the supranational level to protect the commons at the territorial level.

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    Production of Railwayscape in urban environment: Analysing railway heritage tourism potential in Siliguri City, India
    Iman BANERJEE
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 1-12.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.001
    Abstract80)   HTML250)    PDF (11028KB)(40)      

    For a long time, it has been argued that the theories and practices devoted to urban planning and management should conform to the fundamental role of planning policies in the production of urban space, but not merely the spatial distribution of the produced services. Towards this wider connotation, this study introduces the notion of Railwayscape, grounded on the theory of ‘The Production of Space’, to examine the role of railway station districts as catalysts of urban development through the social production of urban space. The present research sets out to establish the notion of Railwayscape and apply it in a railway heritage, i.e., the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) and its point of inception, Siliguri City, India. Accordingly, a criteria-based evaluation of four railway station districts (New Jalpaiguri, Siliguri Town, Siliguri Junction, and Sukna) in Siliguri and its surroundings was performed. The information regarding the selected four railway station districts is obtained through field observation and key informant consultation, supplemented by published literature and remote sensing data. This evaluation is succeeded by the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis accentuating the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the selected four railway station districts and their prospects to become the potential Railwayscape. The results of this research show that there is no railway station district in Siliguri that can fully meet the demands of the locals and tourists, therefore, relfecting a lack of awareness of the historical values of these districts. The results also indicate that there are significant differences in the relative potentials of railway station districts to become the Railwayscape in urban environment. The outcomes of this research, therefore, are expected to encourage policy-making insitutions and practitioners to realise the ‘place value’ of some railway station districts and their potentials to yield better economic, social and structural virtue for a wide range of actors.

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    Influencing factors and contribution analysis of CO2 emissions originating from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province, China
    LIU Wei, JIA Zhijie, DU Meng, DONG Zhanfeng, PAN Jieyu, LI Qinrui, PAN Linyan, Chris UMOLE
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 356-372.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.006
    Abstract162)   HTML3)    PDF (912KB)(38)      

    Within the context of CO2 emission peaking and carbon neutrality, the study of CO2 emissions at the provincial level is few. Sichuan Province in China has not only superior clean energy resources endowment but also great potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Therefore, using logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model to analysis the influence degree of different influencing factors on CO2 emissions from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province, so as to formulate corresponding emission reduction countermeasures from different paths according to the influencing factors. Based on the data of final energy consumption in Sichuan Province from 2010 to 2019, we calculated CO2 emission by the indirect emission calculation method. The influencing factors of CO2 emissions originating from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province were decomposed into population size, economic development, industrial structure, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure by the Kaya-logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition model. At the same time, grey correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between CO2 emissions originating from final energy consumption and the influencing factors in Sichuan Province. The results showed that population size, economic development and energy consumption structure have positive contributions to CO2 emissions from final energy consumption in Sichuan Province, and economic development has a significant contribution to CO2 emissions from final energy consumption, with a contribution rate of 519.11%. The industrial structure and energy consumption intensity have negative contributions to CO2 emissions in Sichuan Province, and both of them have significant contributions, among which the contribution rate of energy consumption structure was 325.96%. From the perspective of industrial structure, secondary industry makes significant contributions and will maintain a restraining effect; from the perspective of energy consumption structure, industry sector has a significant contribution. The results of this paper are conducive to the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies in Sichuan Province.

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    Optimal decision-making considering inter-supply-chain competition and negative-spillover from environmental effort
    WANG Jiguang, HU Yushang, WU Yucai
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 319-334.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.003
    Abstract204)   HTML4)    PDF (600KB)(28)      

    Focusing on negative-spillover from environmental effort, this paper explores the issues of competition and optimal decision-making based on two competing two-stage manufacturer-dominated supply chains: centralized and decentralized. We develop the Stackelberg competition models according to four identified competition scenarios (pure centralized structure-CC, mixed structure-DC, mixed structure-CD, and pure decentralized structure-DD). By comparing the results of the four scenarios, we find that negative-spillover from environmental effort negatively impacts environmental-effort providers and reduces the optimal profit of the manufacturer who provide the environmental effort, which in turn reduces the profit of the entire supply chain. The inter-supply-chain competition also produces a negative incentive for environmental-effort providers but provides a free riding effect on the non-provider, and this effect increases as competition increases. In terms of network externality, the structural change of a supply chain from centralized to decentralized is altruistic, which generates a double-marginalization (i.e., the network externality enhances competitor performance). Furthermore, the leader supply chain with a centralized structure is more willing to provide greater environmental effort, whereas when the leader supply chain structure remains unchanged, its environmental effort depends on the negative-spillover effect and the follower supply chain structure. Therefore, excessive supply chain competition should be avoided, and the negative-spillover effect of environmental effort should be reduced to motivate environmental-effort providers to increase their environmental efforts and promote the development of sustainable green supply chains. Future research should examine retailer-dominated supply chain competition and compare the results with the conclusions of this study.

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    Assessment of the impact of climate change on the occurrences of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria
    Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN, Joseph Omojesu AKERELE, Tolulope Adedoyin OLADEJI, Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Godwin ATAI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 309-318.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.007
    Abstract253)   HTML7)    PDF (1036KB)(27)      

    This study examined the impact of climate change on the occurrence of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria, with the aim of investigating the spatial distribution and prevalence of the four kinds of diseases as well as the coping strategies of people in the area. We collected the rainfall and temperature data of Lokoja City during 2000-2020 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the medical records data of the four kinds of diseases from the Kogi State Ministry of Health. We also conducted a semi-structured questionnaire of 250 residents, who have experienced one of these diseases, to investigate their coping strategies with these diseases. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to research the relationship between the climate parameters and cases of diseases. The result showed annual variations in climatic parameters with R2 values of 0.0557, 0.0009, and 0.4915 for rainfall, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, respectively. A positive and significant relationship were observed between maximum temperature and malaria (r=0.80), rainfall and malaria (r=0.54), minimum temperature and meningitis (r=0.64), as well as rainfall and cholera (r=0.66) at P<0.05 level. For the regression analysis R2= 0.71, 0.50, and 0.52 for malaria, cholera, and meningitis, respectively at P<0.05 level. During 2000-2020, cases of malaria were highest in Ward A with 15,422, while 715 cases of pneumonia were highest in Kupa North Ward. In Ward A, 3787 cases of cholera were recorded to be the highest, while cases of meningitis were highest in Kupa North Ward with 2383 cases. Investigation revealed that malaria is more common in the wet season, while cholera and meningitis cases were highest in the dry season. The study revealed that the most practiced coping strategy is the use of medications by about 90% of the respondents. More studies are recommended in the study area to establish a causal link between climate change and disease occurrence, and intervention from government in form of prevention and control programmes should be vigorously implemented.

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    Traditional agroecological knowledge and practices: The drivers and opportunities for adaptation actions in the northern region of Ghana
    Enoch YELELIERE, Thomas YEBOAH, Philip ANTWI-AGYEI, Prince PEPRAH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 294-308.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.002
    Abstract185)   HTML3)    PDF (504KB)(25)      

    Agroecological practices are promoted as a more proactive approach than conventional agriculture to achieving a collective global response to climate change and variability while building robust and resilient agricultural systems to meet food needs and protect the integrity of ecosystems. There is relatively limited evidence on the key traditional agroecological knowledge and practices adopted by smallholder farmers, the factors that influence smallholder farmers’ decision to adopt these practices, and the opportunities it presents for building resilient agricultural systems. Using a multi-scale mixed method approach, we conducted key informant interviews (n=12), focus group discussions (n=5), and questionnaire surveys (N=220) to explore the traditional agroecological knowledge and practices, the influencing factors, and the opportunities smallholder farmers presented for achieving resilient agricultural systems. Our findings suggest that smallholder farmers employ a suite of traditional agroecological knowledge and practices to enhance food security, combat climate change, and build resilient agricultural systems. The most important traditional agroecological knowledge and practices in the study area comprise cultivating leguminous crops, mixed crop-livestock systems, and crop rotation, with Relative Importance Index (RII) values of 0.710, 0.708, and 0.695, respectively. It is reported that the choice of these practices by smallholder farmers is influenced by their own farming experience, access to market, access to local resources, information, and expertise, and the perceived risk of climate change. Moreover, the results further show that improving household food security and nutrition, improving soil quality, control of pest and disease infestation, and support from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and local authorities are opportunities for smallholder farmers in adopting traditional agroecological knowledge and practices for achieving resilient agricultural systems. The findings call into question the need for stakeholders and policy-makers at all levels to develop capacity and increase the awareness of traditional agroecological knowledge and practices as mechanisms to ensure resilient agricultural systems for sustainable food security.

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    Socio-economic development of countries based on the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI)
    Kalamkas NURALINA, Raissa BAIZHOLOVA, Natalya ALEKSANDROVA, Viktor KONSTANTINOV, Alexander BIRYUKOV
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 115-128.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.005
    Abstract142)   HTML11)    PDF (1469KB)(21)      

    World experience indicates the existence of significant imbalances in the development of countries. The problem of assessing the rational development of the regional and national economy is becoming urgent, since such assessments can prevent development imbalances across countries. The aim of this study is to elaborate a methodology to assess the countries’ socio-economic development by integraring 12 modern indices of socio-economic development into the Composite Country Development Index (CCDI). The methodology of this research was based on a set of key indices that described socio-economic development level in four fields (social development, digital development, economic development, and environmental security) and then these indices were integrated into the CCDI. The study further applied factor analysis and R-Studio software to define the gaps of social and economic development in 59 selected countries using the trigonometric function of the angle sine. The correlation analysis confirmed the existence of a close interrelation among the studied countries. This paper noted that due to the emergence of new priorities, it is necessary to revise the assessment methodology of socio-economic development level and expand them to cover the decisive factors. This was confirmed by the results obtained, demonstrating various combinations of the development level in the four fields and their impact on the CCDI. The scientific contribution of this research is to form a methodology (e.g., the CCDI) for evaluating the socio-economic development level of countries in the world.

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    A new approach towards the sustainability of urban-rural integration: The development strategy for central villages in the Abbasiya District of Iraq using GIS techniques
    Ahmed Hussein ALLAWI, Haider Mohammed Jawad AL-JAZAERI
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 28-43.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus2023.02.004
    Abstract41)   HTML4)    PDF (2621KB)(17)      

    The development of rural areas usually has a positive impact on the urban-rural integration. This study explores an innovative approach to stimulate rural development by proposing qualified villages as central villages that can provide basic urban services for their residents and residents of neighboring villages. This approach can contribute to overcoming the various problems that rural areas faced at the social, economic, and environmental levels. It seeks to achieve spatial sustainability of rural areas, representing a new approach by integrating urban development methods to revitalize rural villages. The study analyzed 15 villages belonging to Abbasiya District of AL Kufa City in the Najaf Governorate of Iraq. Based on the GIS techniques and the analysis of urban service indicators (village population, percentage of urban building materials used in villages, distance between village and health centers, distance between village and main roads, nature of economic activity, distance between village and educational institutions, distance between village and drinking water sources, number of communication towers, and distance between village and urban administrative center), this study proposed that Abu Gharb and Albu Ghraib can served as central villages in Abbasiya District in the future. This study establishes a new rural spatial structure to achieve rural sustainable development, improves the development status of rural areas, and provides a theoretical basis for the government and relevant institutions to use urban service indicators, achieving rural sustainable development and formulating relevant development policies in Abbasiya District.

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    Spatio-temporal variation of water conservation and its impact factors on the southern slope of Qilian Mountains
    WEI Xingtao, Oliver Valentine EBOY, CAO Guangchao, XU Lu
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 54-67.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.001
    Abstract46)   HTML4)    PDF (2211KB)(17)      

    The ecology of Qilian Mountains has been seriously threatened by uncontrolled grazing and wasteland reclamation. This study examined the ecological changes on the southern slope of Qilian Mountains in China from the perspective of water conservation by classifying different clusters of water conservation functional areas to efficiently use limited human resources to tackle the water conservation protection problem. In this study, we used Integrate Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to estimate water conservation and analyzed the factors that influence the function. The results of this study include: (1) from 2000 to 2015, the water conservation of the southern slope of Qilian Mountains generally showed an increasing trend, and the total water conservation in 2015 increased by 42.18% compared with that in 2000. (2) Rainfall, fractional vegetation cover (FVC), and evapotranspiration have the most significant influence on the water conservation of the study area. Among them, water conservation is positively correlated with rainfall and FVC (P<0.05) and negatively correlated with evapotranspiration (P<0.05). (3) The importance level of water conservation functional areas gradually increases from northwest to southeast, and the region surrounding Menyuan Hui Autonomous County in the southeast of the southern slope of Qilian Mountains is the core water conservation functional area. And (4) the study area was divided into five clusters (Cluster I-Cluster V) of water conservation, with the areas of Clusters I through V accounting for 0.58%, 13.74%, 41.23%, 32.43%, and 12.01% of the whole study area, respectively.

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    Evolution of economic linkage network of the cities and counties on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, China
    YANG Zeyu, ZHANG Shubao, LEI Jun, ZHANG Xiaolei, TONG Yanjun, DUAN Zuliang, FAN Liqin
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 173-184.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.002
    Abstract52)   HTML5)    PDF (7311KB)(16)      

    The exchanges between cities and counties in the northern slope economic belt of Tianshan Mountains (NSEBTM) are increasingly frequent and the economic linkages are increasingly close, but the spatial distribution of economic development and linkages among the cities and counties within NSEBTM is uneven. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution of spatial-temporal pattern of the economic linkage network of cities and counties on NSEBTM to promote the coordinated and integrated development of the regional economy on NSEBTM. In this study, we used the modified gravity model and social network analysis method to analyze the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the economic linkage network structure of cities and counties on NSEBTM in 2000, 2010, and 2020. The results showed that the comprehensive development quality level of cities and counties on NSEBTM increased from 2000 to 2020, its growth rate also increased, and its gap between cities and counties continued expanding. Both the spatial distribution patterns of the comprehensive development quality level of cities and counties on NSEBTM in 2000 and 2010 were presented as “high in the middle and low at both ends”, while the spatial distribution pattern of 2020 was exhibited as “high value and low value staggered”. The total amount of external economic linkages of cities and counties on NSEBTM showed an obvious upward trend, and its gap between cities and counties continued expanding, presenting a pattern of “a strong middle section and weak ends”. The direction of economic linkages of NSEBTM existed obvious central orientation and geographical proximity. The density of economic linkage network of NSEBTM increased from 2000 to 2020, and the structure of economic linkage network changed from single-core structure centered with Urumqi City to multicore structure centered with Urumqi City, Karamay City, Shihezi City, and Changji City, shifting from unbalanced development to balanced development. In the future, we should accelerate the construction of urban agglomeration on NSEBTM, cultivate a modern Urumqi metropolitan area, improve comprehensive development quality of the cities and counties at the eastern and western ends, strengthen the intensity of economic linkages between cities and counties, optimize the economic linkage network, and promote the coordinated and integrated development of regional economy.

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    Spatial restructuring and the logic of industrial land redevelopment in urban China: IV. A case study of jointly redevelopment by multi-actors
    GAO Jinlong
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 44-53.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.02.003
    Abstract60)   HTML7)    PDF (601KB)(15)      

    Within the inventory era, urban shrinkage characterized by economic decline and space decay has been widely witnessed in China. The modes and trajectories of urban redevelopment have thus become areas of major concern for both policymakers and scholars. Taking the multi-actor participation nature of redevelopment, this paper stemming from the game-theoretical approach demonstrates in empirical terms on two major fronts. First, the redevelopment of industrial land without the transfer of land use right is shown to be deadlocked by the incapacitation of the original land-user and unlocked with the participation of the new developer. Second, the preference of the original land-user to maximize its interests by operating by itself rather than continue to cooperate with the new developer is observed in the post-redevelopment stage. Therein, the entrepreneurial local government acts only as a “mediator” between the two market entities and tends not to directly intervene in their cooperation. Thus that, it is the reasonable distribution of potential benefits or the pricing of different rights in the land property right bundle rather than their definition that matters more for land redevelopment. Because the delineation of land property rights has never been a problem in a mature land market, particularly for stock industrial land.

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    Impacts of climate change on the yields of leguminous crops in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana
    Enoch YELELIERE, Philip ANTWI-AGYEI, Frank BAFFOUR-ATA
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 139-149.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.04.002
    Abstract97)   HTML5)    PDF (667KB)(9)      

    The impacts of climate change on crop yields are receiving renewed interest, with focus on cereals and staple crops at the regional and national scales. Yet, the impacts of climate change on the yields of leguminous crops in the local context has not been explored. Thus, an in-depth understanding of climate change in the local context may support the design of locally relevant adaptation responses to current and future climate risks. This study examined the impacts of climate variables (annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall indices (rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, and the length of rainy days), and the number of dry days) on the yields of leguminous crops (groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans) in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana during the period of 1989-2020. The data were analysed using Mann-Kendall’s trend, Sen’s slope test, correlation analysis, and Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA). The findings revealed that annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, and the length of rainy days, and the number of dry days all showed varied impacts on the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans. The trend analysis detected a marginal decrease in the amount of rainfall, rainfall onset, and the number of dry days from 1989 to 2020 (P>0.050). Annual average temperature and the length of rainy days substantially varied (P<0.050) from 1989 to 2020, showing an increasing trend. The findings also showed a marked upward trend for the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans during 2005-2020. The climate variables analysed above increased the yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans by 49.0%, 55.0%, and 69.0%, respectively. The yields of groundnuts, cowpeas, and soybeans fluctuated with the variability of 30.0%, 28.0%, and 27.0% from 2005 to 2020, respectively. The three leguminous crops under study demonstrated unpredictable yields due to the variations of annual rainfall, annual average temperature, rainfall onset, rainfall cessation, the length of rainy days, and the number of dry days, which stressed the need for agricultural diversification, changing planting dates, using improved seed variety, and irrigation to respond to climate change. The results of this study implied that climate change considerably impacts crop production in the Guinea Savanna agroecological zone of Ghana, emphasizing the urgency of locally based and farmer-induced adaptation measures for food security and resilient agricultural systems.

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    Knowledge flow analysis of knowledge co-production-based climate change adaptation for lowland rice farmers in Bulukumba Regency, Indonesia
    Arifah, Darmawan SALMAN, Amir YASSI, Eymal Bahsar DEMMALLINO
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (2): 194-202.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.005
    Abstract163)   HTML2)    PDF (265KB)(9)      

    To increase the resilience of farmers’ livelihood systems, detailed knowledge of adaptation strategies for dealing with the impacts of climate change is required. Knowledge co-production approach is an adaptation strategy that is considered appropriate in the context of the increasing frequency of disasters caused by climate change. Previous research of knowledge co-production on climate change adaptation in Indonesia is insufficient, particularly at local level, so we examined the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge in the knowledge co-production process through climate field school (CFS) activities in this study. We interviewed 120 people living in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, involving 12 crowds including male and female farmers participated in CFS and not participated in CFS, local government officials, agriculture extension workers, agricultural traders, farmers’ family members and neighbors, etc. In brief, the 12 groups of people mainly include two categories of people, i.e., people involved in CFS activities and outside CFS. We applied descriptive method and Social network analysis (SNA) to determine how knowledge flow in the community network and which groups of actors are important for knowledge flow. The findings of this study reveal that participants in CFS activities convey the knowledge they acquired formally (i.e., from TV, radio, government, etc.) and informally (i.e., from market, friends, relatives, etc.) to other actors, especially to their families and neighbors. The results also show that the acquisition and sharing of knowledge facilitate the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge based on knowledge co-operation. In addition, the findings highlight the key role of actors in the knowledge transfer process, and key actors involved in disseminating information about climate change adaptation. To be specific, among all the actors, family member and neighbor of CFS actor are the most common actors in disseminating climate knowledge information and closest to other actors in the network; agricultural trader and family member of CFS actor collaborate most with other actors in the community network; and farmers participated in CFS, including those heads of farmer groups, agricultural extension workers, and local government officials are more willing to contact with other actors in the network. To facilitate the flow of knowledge on climate change adaptation, CFS activities should be conducted regularly and CFS models that fit the situation of farmers’ vulnerability to climate change should be developed.

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