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    From theme park to cultural tourism town: Disneyization turning of tourism space in China
    Zi’ang ZHANG, Zengxian LIANG, Jigang BAO
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 156-163.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.003
    Abstract374)   HTML5)    PDF (774KB)(255)      

    Theme park development has become an important choice for tourism space development in Chinese cities, and the theming of space as well as the implied consumption symbols and cultural implications are usually viewed as examples for the development of other urban spaces, such as cultural tourism towns. The result is the Disneyization of urban tourism space. With the construction of characteristic towns being vigorously promoted throughout China, cultural tourism towns are springing up. They are typical of the “Wuzhen Town Mode” and represent the process of the Disneyization of tourism space in China. This research reflects on the evolution of the characteristics of tourism space in China. Taking the Wuzhen Town Mode as an example, this study reveals the characteristics and conversion mechanism of the Disneyization of tourism space in Chinese cities. According to this research, the Wuzhen Town Mode of the Disneyization is characterized by theming, hybrid consumption, merchandising, and performative labor. Residential function is a unique characteristic of the Disneyization of cultural tourism towns in China. Moreover, the Wuzhen Town Mode of the Disneyization is jointly motivated by the driving force of local governments, the propulsive force of tourist demand, the attractive force of the social environment, and the driving force of capital. Finally, suggestions and policy proposals are provided for the Disneyization of tourism space in China.

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    Dynamics of NDVI and its influencing factors in the Chinese Loess Plateau during 2002-2018
    Peng He, Lishuai Xu, Zhengchun Liu, Yaodong Jing, Wenbo Zhu
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 36-46.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.01.002
    Abstract313)   HTML7)    PDF (3979KB)(218)      

    Understanding the spatio-temporal changes of vegetation and its climatic control factors can provide an important theoretical basis for the protection and restoration of eco-environments. In this study, we analyzed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) from 2002 to 2018 via trend analysis, stability analysis, and Mann-Kendall mutation test to investigate the change of vegetation. In addition, we also used the skewness analysis and correlation analysis to explore the contribution of climate change and human activities on regional vegetation changes. The results indicated that the overall increasing trend of NDVI from 2002 to 2018 was significant. The areas showing increased NDVI were mainly distributed in the southeastern CLP and the irrigation districts of the Yellow River to the north and west of the CLP, while the areas showing decreased NDVI were concentrated in the desert of the western Ordos Plateau, Longzhong Loess Plateau, and the built-up and adjacent areas. Precipitation was the dominant factor contributing to vegetation growth in the CLP, while vegetation was less dependent on precipitation in the irrigation districts. The increasement of NDVI has led to a prolonged response time of vegetation to water stress and a lag effect of less than two months in the CLP. The effect of temperature on NDVI was not significant; significant negative correlations between NDVI and temperature were found only in the desert, the Guanzhong Plain, the southern Liupan Mountains, and the southeastern Taihang Mountains, owing to high temperatures, urban heat islands, and large cloud cover in mountainous areas. Affected by the “Grain for Green Program” (GGP), NDVI in the CLP increased from 2002 to 2018; however, the increasing trends of NDVI for different vegetation cover types were significantly different owing to the difference in background status. The increasing contribution rate of NDVI in the CLP mainly came from crops and steppes. Urban not only led to the destruction of vegetation but also had radiation effect causing negative impact of NDVI around the cities. This resulted in the aggravation of the negative bias of NDVI with time in the CLP. The results provide a long-term perspective for regional vegetation protection and utilization in the CLP.

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    Spatial-temporal characteristics of the coupling coordination of social security and economic development in China during 2002-2018
    Qiong LI, Yang ZHAO, Songlin LI, Lanlan ZHANG
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 116-129.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.04.001
    Abstract372)   HTML10)    PDF (2575KB)(164)      

    Clarifying the relationship between social security and economic development is helpful to realize the sustainable social security system and the stable function of sustainable economic development. In this paper, the entropy method, coupling coordination degree, standard deviation ellipse model, and spatial autocorrelation were used to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of coupling coordination of social security and economic development in China from 2002 to 2018. The results indicate that the relationship between social security and economic development in China has been gradually strengthened in the process of mutual adaptation and common development. The benign interaction between the two was unstable, though the coupling coordination degree gradually transitioned to the primary coupling coordination type. Besides, from a spatial perspective, first, the coupling coordination degree of social security and economic development in China contracted in the east-west and north-south directions, and the coupling coordination clustered in the central region in this period; second, the coupling coordination degree generally presented a positive spatial autocorrelation, and regions with similar coupling coordination degrees were in a state of agglomeration; finally, the hot spots clumped together to form a continuous area in the eastern coastal area while the cold spots expanded toward the northwest and northeast. Furthermore, the random distribution areas exhibited a trend of contraction.

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    Use of the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model to examine sustainable agriculture in Thailand
    LIAO Xuewei, Thi Phuoc Lai NGUYEN, Nophea SASAKI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 41-52.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.005
    Abstract241)   HTML4)    PDF (504KB)(149)      

    Sustainable agriculture plays an important role in achieving sustainable development goals with regard to food security and environmental conservation. Sustainable agriculture relies on sustainable farming practices that reduce greenhouse gas production, the wise use of local natural resources, and reductions in negative impacts on the environment and human health. Sustainable farming practices can be driven by various factors, such as the socio-environmental setting, socio-cognitive factors, agricultural institutions, and policy. This study used the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model to examine farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the area of sustainable agriculture. It also considered the factors affecting farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Two different socio-environmental contextual settings in Surin Province (a Thai-Cambodian border province) of Thailand are considered. The results show that there are differences between the two different socio-environmental contextual settings with regard to farmers’ sustainable agricultural practice perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes. Farmers’ perceptions of environmental degradation, the number of years of agricultural experience, and agricultural policy drive farmers’ attitudes and individual sustainable practices. Another major result of the study is that individual farmers’ attitudes and practices promote collective sustainable agricultural behaviors. The implication of these findings is that it is necessary to improve the learning ability of individual farmers on the environment and sustainable agricultural practices through social learning and scientific knowledge dissemination, so as to produce sustainable collective development behaviors.

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    Purchase willingness of new energy vehicles: A case study in Jinan City of China
    Xueqing Tian, Qingling Zhang, Yuzhu Chi, Yu Cheng
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 12-22.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.12.003
    Abstract321)   HTML7)    PDF (802KB)(148)      

    Speeding up the promotion of new energy vehicles is an important measure to optimize the energy structure, promote energy conservation and emission reduction, and develop the economy sustainability. The research uses a questionnaire survey to analyze the residents’ willingness to purchase new energy vehicles in Jinan City of China, and utilizes the binomial logistic regression model and Global Moran’s I to explain the impact of three factors (including respondents’ personal characteristics and subjective cognition, products, and social environment) on the purchase willingness of new energy vehicles. According to the survey, 75.12% of the respondents consider buying new energy vehicles in the future, but only 11.66% of the respondents know new energy vehicles well. It can be seen that the respondents in Jinan City generally have an insufficient understanding of new energy vehicles. It may lead to a decline in residents’ trust in new energy vehicles, which will in turn affect their purchase willingness. Based on the survey, we find that women who live far from the city center enjoy high incomes and have a low-carbon awareness, generally exhibit a higher willingness to purchase new energy vehicles. Spatial distribution of the purchase willingness has certain aggregation characteristics, showing a positive spatial correlation pattern. Purchase willingness has a certain positive diffusion effect in space, and areas with a higher purchase willingness have a positive driving effect on their surrounding regions. Spatial distribution of the purchase willingness can be used as one of the breakthroughs in promoting new energy vehicles. In addition, safety, price, after-sales service, and infrastructure of new energy vehicles are important determinants of people’s purchase willingness. Among the types of subsidies, financial subsidy is most effective on the residents’ purchase willingness. Our research provides an important information for the promotion of new energy vehicles in the region.

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    Biodiversity arks in the Anthropocene
    Honghu MENG, Xiaoyang GAO, Yigang SAONG, Guanlong CAO, Jie LI
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 109-115.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.03.001
    Abstract263)   HTML11)    PDF (831KB)(136)      

    The Anthropocene proposal suggested that the Earth may have entered a new geological epoch, in which human activity and climate change are influencing the environment at global scale. Arrival of the Anthropocene is bringing an unprecedented challenge to the biodiversity that is essential to humans, and enhancing many benefits of nature to human being. However, biodiversity loss is aggravating in the rhythm of inevitable change in the Anthropocene, and the adaptation of biodiversity to the anthropogenic disturbance seems unable to keep pace with the human activity and climate change. Therefore, re-examination of the assumptions and practices upon the current conservation endeavor are needed. We suggested that biodiversity conservation should be paid more attention to the response from biodiversity to the human activity and climate change in the Anthropocene. Thus, the concept of biodiversity arks in the Anthropocene is proposed, that is, biodiversity arks in the Anthropocene are the areas where vulnerable biodiversity is sheltered to alleviate human activity and buffered from climate change under the anthropogenic disturbance. The concept should be implemented for biodiversity conservation to fill gaps between our knowledge and build on successful conservation and sustainability in the Anthropocene. It will be certainly important to conservation policy instruction and management under climate change, especially the implementation of climate buffering zones preserving biodiversity in the face of warming climate.

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    Exploration of the dynamic water resource carrying capacity of the Keriya River Basin on the southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert, China
    Shuhong Yang, Tao Yang
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 73-82.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.01.005
    Abstract314)   HTML6)    PDF (934KB)(128)      

    The water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) in river basin changes dynamically under climate change, economic development, and technological advancement. Climate change affects hydrological processes and spatial/temporal distribution of water resources; while economic development and technological advancement can also affect the balance of water resources systems. Under climate change, economic development, and technological advancement, it is of great significance to explore the dynamic behavior of WRCC in river basins. This will help to alleviate water resources security issues and build a sustainable water resources system. This study was carried out to evaluate the dynamic WRCC using the “climate, economics, and technology-control objective inversion model”, which used total water consumption, water-use efficiency, and restrained total pollutant control in the water functional area as boundary conditions. This study was conducted on the Keriya River Basin, a sub-catchment located in southern margin of the Taklimakan Desert. The WRCC in the Keriya River Basin in 2015 was calculated, and the trends in the short term (2020), middle term (2030), and long term (2050) were predicted. The results revealed that climate change factors have a positive effect on WRCC in the Keriya River Basin, which leads to an increase in total water resources. Economic and technological development exhibits an overall positive effect, while increasing in water consumption and sewage discharge exhibit a negative effect.

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    Evaluation of carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change in Zhengzhou City of China
    HE Jianjian, ZHANG Pengyan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.002
    Abstract334)   HTML13)    PDF (3234KB)(127)      

    Studies on carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change (LUCC) are key to understanding the impact of human activities on regional sustainability. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial changes in carbon emissions associated with LUCC for production, living, and ecological spaces in Zhengzhou City of China. Landsat remote sensing images were used to classify the land use and land cover (LULC) types in Zhengzhou City in 1988, 2001, 2009, and 2015. Carbon emissions associated with LUCC were evaluated using a spatial gradient model and the niche mechanism. It was found that during 1988-2015, carbon emissions associated with LUCC in Zhengzhou City increased by 17.1×106 t, while the carbon sink resulted from cultivated land, forests, water bodies, and unused land decreased significantly. Most of the increase in carbon emissions associated with LUCC occurred in the center of the city. The peak carbon emissions were located in the northeastern, southeastern, northwestern, and southwestern regions of Zhengzhou City, and carbon emissions varied considerably in the different spatial gradient rings over time. Among the three spaces, carbon emissions associated with LUCC were mainly affected by the living space. The population size and population urbanization rate were negatively correlated with the ecological space and positively correlated with the production and living spaces. Our results highlight that Zhengzhou City should take the new urbanization path of urban transformation development and ecological civilization construction to ensure the realization of the promised carbon emission reduction targets.

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    Charging infrastructure planning for electric vehicle in India: Present status and future challenges
    Sulabh SACHAN, Praveen Prakash SINGH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 335-345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.008
    Abstract327)   HTML3)    PDF (584KB)(125)      

    The challenge to deal with environmental contamination along with national goals such as energy security, reliability, and self-dependency due to depleting fossil fuel resources has motivated researchers to find an alternate solution in the transport sector. Due to this, electrification of the transport sector has become an achievable solution that has caught attention with increasing penetration in the market share. India is a participant in the Paris Agreement which aims to curtail the production of greenhouse gases and limit the escalating temperature. Public intervention and changes in policy and regulations are the key aspects of technological transition. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, the consumers’ frame of mind concerns about adapting to e-mobility is anxiety over charging times and driving range. Thus, the development of charging stations plays a crucial role in promoting electric vehicles (EVs). This study investigates to identify different barriers that exist in the Indian context related to the adoption of e-mobility. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the recent developments in charging infrastructure planning in India. Also, the status of installed charging stations is examined. Developing appropriate charging stations are associated with several challenges, which are also highlighted to provide guidance to public and private entities that can be adopted in their respective business model. As India has the second largest population and is the seventh largest country in the world, the EV adoption rate of India is considerably low compared to other countries; for India, there is a long way to match the growth rate of EV adoption. Hence it becomes essential to develop a robust and suitable charging infrastructure to promote the sale and use of EVs in India.

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    Digital mapping of soil salinization based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data combined with machine learning algorithms
    Guolin MA, Jianli DING, Lijng HAN, Zipeng ZHANG, Si RAN
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 177-188.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.06.001
    Abstract394)   HTML8)    PDF (2338KB)(119)      

    Soil salinization is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. The dynamic monitoring of soil salinization is of great significance to land management, agricultural activities, water quality, and sustainable development. The remote sensing images taken by the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Sentinel-1 and the multispectral satellite Sentinel-2 with high resolution and short revisit period have the potential to monitor the spatial distribution of soil attribute information on a large area; however, there are limited studies on the combination of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 for digital mapping of soil salinization. Therefore, in this study, we used topography indices derived from digital elevation model (DEM), SAR indices generated by Sentinel-1, and vegetation indices generated by Sentinel-2 to map soil salinization in the Ogan-Kuqa River Oasis located in the central and northern Tarim Basin in Xinjiang of China, and evaluated the potential of multi-source sensors to predict soil salinity. Using the soil electrical conductivity (EC) values of 70 ground sampling sites as the target variable and the optimal environmental factors as the predictive variable, we constructed three soil salinity inversion models based on classification and regression tree (CART), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost). Then, we evaluated the prediction ability of different models through the five-fold cross validation. The prediction accuracy of XGBoost model is better than those of CART and RF, and soil salinity predicted by the three models has similar spatial distribution characteristics. Compared with the combination of topography indices and vegetation indices, the addition of SAR indices effectively improves the prediction accuracy of the model. In general, the method of soil salinity prediction based on multi-source sensor combination is better than that based on a single sensor. In addition, SAR indices, vegetation indices, and topography indices are all effective variables for soil salinity prediction. Weighted Difference Vegetation Index (WDVI) is designated as the most important variable in these variables, followed by DEM. The results showed that the high-resolution radar Sentinel-1 and multispectral Sentinel-2 have the potential to develop soil salinity prediction model.

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    Trade-offs and synergies of climate change adaptation strategies among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review
    Devinia Princess AKINYI, Stanley Karanja NG’ANG’A, Evan GIRVETZ
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 130-143.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.002
    Abstract224)   HTML7)    PDF (673KB)(113)      

    Climate change adaptation strategies provide a cushion for smallholder farmers, especially in sub-Saharan Africa against the risks posed by climate hazards such as droughts and floods. However, the decision-making process in climate adaptation is complex. To better understand the dynamics of the process, we strive to answer this question: what are the potential trade-offs and synergies related to decision-making and implementation of climate adaptation strategies among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa region? A systematic literature review methodology was used through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement with the four-stage inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify the literature from selected databases (Scopus and Google Scholar). The climate adaptation strategies are organized into five broad categories (crop management, risk management, soil/land management, water management, and livestock management strategies). Evidence suggests that potential trade-offs may arise concerning added costs, additional labor requirements, and competition among objectives or available resources. The synergies, on the other hand, arise from implementing two or more adaptation strategies concurrently in respect of increased productivity, resilience, yield stability, sustainability, and environmental protection. Trade-offs and synergies may also differ among the various adaptation strategies with minimum/zero tillage, comparatively, presenting more trade-offs. The development and promotion of low-cost adaptation strategies and complementary climate adaptation options that minimize the trade-offs and maximize the synergies are suggested. Skills and knowledge on proper implementation of climate change adaptation strategies are encouraged, especially at the local farm level.

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    Spatial pattern and drivers of urbanization in China’s mid-level developing urban agglomeration: A case study of Chang-Zhu-Tan
    Yanhua He, Yi Lin, Guohua Zhou, Yixuan Zhu, Kai Tang
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 83-97.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.12.001
    Abstract175)   HTML3)    PDF (3318KB)(110)      

    Urban agglomeration has become the main form of regional spatial organization in China. While most of the existing studies of urban agglomeration in China have focused on the eastern coastal areas, urban agglomeration with mid-level development in the rest of the country has been overlooked. To better understand the urbanization process of the mid-level developing urban agglomeration, this study investigated the clustering pattern and the drivers of both urban population and firm dynamics during 2005-2015 in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (Chang-Zhu-Tan) urban agglomeration of China using the methods of kernel density estimation and geographic detection. Our results show that centralization was obvious, although decentralization also occurred in Chang-Zhu-Tan, and that the spatial agglomeration was promoted by several factors, such as administrative resources, location advantage, labor cost, and consumption capacity. Some problems hindering the development of this region were also discovered: administrative resources played a critical role in urbanization because small towns and villages did not receive enough attention, and the effect of local policy was not as beneficial as expected. These findings partly explain the relatively slow development of mid-level developing urban agglomerations and have important implications for promoting healthier urbanization.

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    Co-management of small-scale fishery in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia
    Serey Sok, Xiaojiang Yu
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.12.002
    Abstract246)   HTML6)    PDF (670KB)(108)      

    In Cambodia, fishery co-management is an important process to transfer authority and ownership to the communities along the Tonle Sap Lake to manage fishery. This paper aims to determine why the co-management of small-scale fishery has not been implemented satisfactorily in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. The research was primarily based on a household survey among 404 households for quantitative data, equally divided between the Cham (202 households) and Khmer (202 households). Participatory process was also applied to collect qualitative data from key stakeholders. We found that limited interaction among the involved stakeholders, i.e., unequal distribution of authority and resources co-management, has impeded implementation. The engagement of fisherfolk was influenced by dependence on fishery, law enforcement, and events organized by the communities. While the Khmer had better opportunities to participate in planning at the provincial and district levels, the Cham were only engaged in local development activities initiated by their people. However, the latter evinced a higher rate of satisfaction due to their access to fishery resources and to a large quantity of fishing gear. In the future, efforts should be made to: (1) improve resource and authority sharing among all key stakeholders; (2) urgently resolve issues pertinent to capacity building, insufficient budgets for commune councils (CoCs) and community fishery (CFi); and (3) urge law enforcement regarding illegal fishing.

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    Assessing the adequacy and sustainability performance of multi-family residential buildings in Anambra State, Nigeria
    Peter Uchenna Okoye, Chukwuemeka Ngwu
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 23-35.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.01.003
    Abstract237)   HTML2)    PDF (436KB)(106)      

    The proliferation of multi-family residential building in Anambra State of Nigeria due to increasing demand without recourse to performance has brought concerns about the adequacy and sustainability of this housing type. This study therefore, assessed the adequacy and sustainability performance of multi-family residential buildings in urban areas of Anambra State. The study sampled the opinions of 384 households living in multi-family residential buildings through a questionnaire survey. We conducted data analysis based on 214 responses that were useful for analysis. The study found that internal and building component variables and supporting neighborhood variables were adequate, but the surrounding environment variables were inadequate based on Mean Score Index. However, based on Sustainability Performance Index, the occupants perceived social sustainability performance of the buildings as satisfactory, while environmental and economic sustainability performance were perceived as fairly satisfactory. The Pearson correlation coefficient result further established that adequacy of internal and building component variables was significantly and positively related to the residents’ perceived social sustainability performance. Adequacy of the surrounding environmental variables was also found to be positively and significantly related to the residents’ perceived environmental sustainability performance, whereas adequacy of supporting neighborhood facilities was found to be negatively and significantly related to the residents’ perceived economic sustainability performance. This suggested that investors and owners of multi-family residential buildings should direct more efforts towards improving the surrounding environment to supplements other facilities and increase the economic benefit of the renters or occupiers with increasing economic sustainability performance in terms of value for money.

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    Towards a sustainable campus-city relationship: A systematic review of the literature
    Ahmed Mohammed Sayed MOHAMMED, Tetsuya UKAI, Michael HALL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.004
    Abstract312)   HTML3)    PDF (1170KB)(103)      

    The relationship between a university and its city is considered strategical to achieve university targeted ambitions and visions. The university-city relationship is also encouraged for the benefit of the city, as universities unleash their respective cities’ potentials to act as driving forces not only for their local communities, but also for the whole nation. Therefore, maintaining a mutual relationship between the university and the city is considered essential to accomplish strategic goals for both. However, the nature of this relationship is quite complex, overlapped, interconnected, and diverse. Therefore, this paper conducted a systematic review of the literature on university-city and campus-city relationships to evaluate recent research trends to uncover the aspects that connect universities with their respective cities. The search included articles published in 4 different databases from January 1990 to January 2021. A total number of 50 articles were selected in this review. The findings uncovered different aspects that could help or hinder university-city relationship based on the physical and functional linkage between the campus and the city. Moreover, findings have shown that it is necessary to understand universities according to their contextual differences, as universities have shown different impacts on their respective cities in terms of their sizes and locations. Results have also shown that the impact of the physical connection between the university and the city goes far beyond campus’s accessibility as it deeply affects students’ social life as well. Therefore, decision makers, stakeholders, and university administrators need to co-design campus development process especially in the early stages to maximize the mutual benefits of campus-city relationship. The main conclusions of this paper address several perspectives and lessons for a more sustainable campus-city relationship.

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    Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of nighttime urban vibrancy in central Shanghai inferred from mobile phone data
    ZHANG Yangfan, ZHONG Weijing, WANG De, LIN Feng-Tyan
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (4): 297-307.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.11.006
    Abstract363)   HTML12)    PDF (3263KB)(102)      

    In recent years, major cities around the world such as New York in USA, Melbourne in Australia, and Shanghai in China, have planned to boost their nighttime urban vibrancy levels to spur the economy and achieve cultural diversity. The study of nighttime urban vibrancy from the perspective of spatiotemporal characteristics is increasingly being recognized as part of the essential work in the field of urban planning and geography. This research used mobile phone signaling records to measure urban vibrancy in central Shanghai and revealed its spatiotemporal patterns during nighttime. Specifically, this research explored the changes of urban vibrancy within a day, studied the distribution of urban vibrancy during the nighttime, and visually presented the spatiotemporal changes of nighttime urban vibrancy in central Shanghai. Moreover, on the basis of the behavior pattern of each mobile user, we classified nighttime urban vibrancy into three different types: nighttime working vibrancy, nighttime leisure vibrancy, and nighttime floating vibrancy. We then tried to determine how land use affected nighttime leisure vibrancy. The results showed that urban vibrancy in central Shanghai exhibits a periodic pattern over one-day period. A high-level nighttime urban vibrancy belt is present within central Shanghai. Business offices, hotels, entertainment and recreational districts, wholesale markets, and express services contribute most to the vibrancy at nighttime. In addition, the correlation analysis shows that public and commercial facilities generate high levels of nighttime leisure vibrancy than residential facilities. The mixed land use of public and commercial facilities and residential facilities within 500 m is more critical than the mixed use of a single land lot. The research can be a basis for supporting land use planning and providing evidence for policy-making to improve the level of nighttime urban vibrancy in cities.

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    Regional landscape transformation and sustainability of the rural homegarden agroforestry system in the Chengdu Plain, China
    ZHOU Lian, HUANG Xueyuan, ZHAO Chunmei, PU Tiancun, ZHANG Lei
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 68-81.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.04.001
    Abstract239)   HTML4)    PDF (11842KB)(101)      

    Traditional rural homegarden agroforestry system in the Chengdu Plain of China, called “Linpan” in Chinese, integrates the ecological functions of the landscape with human production activities. Studying the driving mechanisms of rural landscape changes in the Chengdu Plain is of great significance from stakeholders’ perspective. Taking the Pidu Linpan Farming System (PLFS) in the suburban area of Chengdu (designated as one of China-Nationally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems in 2020) as a case, this study combined remote sensing image analysis, oral history interviews, and focus group interviews to elucidate the driving forces of landscape changes in the PLFS. The results show that tourism development, traffic accessibility, economic demand, and agricultural heritage protection measure are the main driving forces promoting the stability and maintenance of the traditional homegardens. In contrast, population ageing, land circulation, centralized residence, climate change, and living and recreational need are the forces leading to adverse changes in the traditional homegardens. In addition, these driving forces have led to the gradual abandonment of traditional agricultural activities and critical issues related to rural landscape planning and management. The current research indicates that infrastructure construction and increased traditional agricultural income are considered as the best practices of local stakeholders, promoting the development of the protected homegardens of heritage sites and tourist destinations. Finally, we put forward some suggestions to improve and maintain the traditional rural landscape: (1) establishing a benefit-sharing mechanism; (2) establishing a training system with traditional technology and culture; (3) strengthening infrastructure construction; (4) promoting the development of the agricultural industry; (5) improving the cultural quality of farmers; and (6) establishing a management system with legal effects. This research can provide a basis for the formulation of rural landscape planning and the orderly and healthy development of agricultural heritage in Chengdu Plain.

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    Exploring the complex structural evolution of global primary product trade network
    JIANG Xiaorong, LIU Qing, WANG Shenglan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 82-94.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.006
    Abstract265)   HTML6)    PDF (4539KB)(101)      

    The production and trade of primary products had a growing impact on the economic security of all countries and regions, and the strategic position of these products in the global trade network was becoming increasingly prominent. Based on complex network theory, this paper explored the spatial pattern and complex structural evolution of the global primary product trade network (GPPTN) during 1985-2015 by using index methods, such as centrality, Sankey diagram, and structure entropy, focusing on the diversified spatial structure of China’s import and export markets for primary products (with exceptions of Taiwan of China, Hong Kong of China, and Macao of China due to a lack of data) and their geographical implications for China’s energy security. The research offered the following key findings. The GPPTN showed an obvious spatial heterogeneity pattern, and the area of import consumption was more concentrated; however, the overall trend was decentralized. The trade center of gravity shifted eastwards and reflected the rise of emerging markets. The overall flow of the GPPTN was from west to east and from south to north. In terms of the community detection of the GPPTN, North America, Europe, and Asia increasingly presented an unbalanced “tripartite confrontation”. China’s exports of primary products were mainly concentrated in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and other peripheral regions of Asia, and its imports undergone a major transformation, gradually expanding from the peripheral regions of Asia to Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Energy fuels also became the largest imported primary products. Based on the changing trend of structural entropy and main market share, the analysis showed that the stable supply of China’s energy diversification was gradually realized. In particular, the cooperation dividend proposed by the Belt and Road initiative became an important turning point and a strong support for the expansion of China’s energy market diversification pattern and guarantee of energy security.

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    Forest landscape and its ecological quality: a stepwise spatiotemporal evaluation through patch-matrix model in Jhargram District, West Bengal State, India
    Mrinmay MANDAL, Nilanjana Das CHATTERJEE
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 164-176.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.06.002
    Abstract286)   HTML6)    PDF (4033KB)(99)      

    Landscape conversion becomes a continuous process in a natural landscape for any strategic development. In a forest landscape mosaic, the conversion from non-forest land to forest land implies a constructive approach. Various bio-geographic processes are enriched and developed when the land was converted to forest land in a given landscape matrix. The present study evaluated how the increased forest cover improves the ecological quality of forest in Jhargram District of West Bengal State, India, from 1985 to 2015. The quality of forests includes dominance, fragmentation and connectivity, which are the basis ecological indicators of habitat structure. To address this issue, we extracted forest cover maps of 1985 and 2015 from land use/land cover classification. A grid framework was overlaid on these forest cover maps for patch-matrix model analysis. Reliable landscape ecological indices were used for the measurements of forest landscape quality in 1985 and 2015. Then a simple linear regression model was used to compare the results. Temporally, forest cover increased in Jhargram District from 1985 to 2015. The comparison of measurement indices depicts that although only a small amount of land was changed into forest land in the study area, this small change has greatly improved the structural compositional quality of the forest land. Compared with 1985, the forest land area increased by about 6930.56 hm2 in 2015. This increased forest cover improved the basic landscape ecological characters, such as inter patch connectivity, forest core area, forest habitat dependence, forest habitat dominance and forest edge effect. As a result, the ecosystem function in Jhargram District has been improved, which again attracts wildlife and enriches biodiversity.

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    Impact of high-speed railway construction on spatial relationships in the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration
    Huiling Zheng, Xiaoshu Cao
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 47-59.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.01.001
    Abstract281)   HTML8)    PDF (1215KB)(96)      

    The Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration is a response to the Belt and Road Initiative in Northwest China that aims to promote regional development. The direct impact of high-speed railway construction is to shorten the spatial-temporal distance among regions, improve the accessibility of regional transportation, and promote socioeconomic linkages. From the perspective of accessibility, this study analyzes the impact of high-speed railway construction on the spatial patterns and county-level economic relationships of the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration. The results show that the construction of high-speed railway significantly improves regional accessibility, increases the potential for urban economic development, and gradually narrows the gaps in economic potential among cities. The construction of high-speed railway has increased the intensity of external economic relations among numerous counties in the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration, and most of the areas with increased connections are located in the direction of routes extension. The development of the internal economic network of the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration is unbalanced, and a complex network is gradually emerging with a few large cities at the core, but the construction of high-speed railway is changing the structure of the economic network. In general, a certain degree of intrinsic coupling exists between regional accessibility change and the evolution of economic relations caused by high-speed railway, reflecting the requirements of the regional overall development strategy.

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