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    Co-management of small-scale fishery in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia
    Serey Sok, Xiaojiang Yu
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.12.002
    Abstract244)   HTML6)    PDF (670KB)(107)      

    In Cambodia, fishery co-management is an important process to transfer authority and ownership to the communities along the Tonle Sap Lake to manage fishery. This paper aims to determine why the co-management of small-scale fishery has not been implemented satisfactorily in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. The research was primarily based on a household survey among 404 households for quantitative data, equally divided between the Cham (202 households) and Khmer (202 households). Participatory process was also applied to collect qualitative data from key stakeholders. We found that limited interaction among the involved stakeholders, i.e., unequal distribution of authority and resources co-management, has impeded implementation. The engagement of fisherfolk was influenced by dependence on fishery, law enforcement, and events organized by the communities. While the Khmer had better opportunities to participate in planning at the provincial and district levels, the Cham were only engaged in local development activities initiated by their people. However, the latter evinced a higher rate of satisfaction due to their access to fishery resources and to a large quantity of fishing gear. In the future, efforts should be made to: (1) improve resource and authority sharing among all key stakeholders; (2) urgently resolve issues pertinent to capacity building, insufficient budgets for commune councils (CoCs) and community fishery (CFi); and (3) urge law enforcement regarding illegal fishing.

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    Exploring the complex structural evolution of global primary product trade network
    JIANG Xiaorong, LIU Qing, WANG Shenglan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 82-94.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.006
    Abstract263)   HTML6)    PDF (4539KB)(99)      

    The production and trade of primary products had a growing impact on the economic security of all countries and regions, and the strategic position of these products in the global trade network was becoming increasingly prominent. Based on complex network theory, this paper explored the spatial pattern and complex structural evolution of the global primary product trade network (GPPTN) during 1985-2015 by using index methods, such as centrality, Sankey diagram, and structure entropy, focusing on the diversified spatial structure of China’s import and export markets for primary products (with exceptions of Taiwan of China, Hong Kong of China, and Macao of China due to a lack of data) and their geographical implications for China’s energy security. The research offered the following key findings. The GPPTN showed an obvious spatial heterogeneity pattern, and the area of import consumption was more concentrated; however, the overall trend was decentralized. The trade center of gravity shifted eastwards and reflected the rise of emerging markets. The overall flow of the GPPTN was from west to east and from south to north. In terms of the community detection of the GPPTN, North America, Europe, and Asia increasingly presented an unbalanced “tripartite confrontation”. China’s exports of primary products were mainly concentrated in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and other peripheral regions of Asia, and its imports undergone a major transformation, gradually expanding from the peripheral regions of Asia to Africa, the Middle East, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Energy fuels also became the largest imported primary products. Based on the changing trend of structural entropy and main market share, the analysis showed that the stable supply of China’s energy diversification was gradually realized. In particular, the cooperation dividend proposed by the Belt and Road initiative became an important turning point and a strong support for the expansion of China’s energy market diversification pattern and guarantee of energy security.

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    Charging infrastructure planning for electric vehicle in India: Present status and future challenges
    Sulabh SACHAN, Praveen Prakash SINGH
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 335-345.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.008
    Abstract322)   HTML3)    PDF (584KB)(123)      

    The challenge to deal with environmental contamination along with national goals such as energy security, reliability, and self-dependency due to depleting fossil fuel resources has motivated researchers to find an alternate solution in the transport sector. Due to this, electrification of the transport sector has become an achievable solution that has caught attention with increasing penetration in the market share. India is a participant in the Paris Agreement which aims to curtail the production of greenhouse gases and limit the escalating temperature. Public intervention and changes in policy and regulations are the key aspects of technological transition. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE)-based vehicles, the consumers’ frame of mind concerns about adapting to e-mobility is anxiety over charging times and driving range. Thus, the development of charging stations plays a crucial role in promoting electric vehicles (EVs). This study investigates to identify different barriers that exist in the Indian context related to the adoption of e-mobility. Furthermore, this work emphasizes the recent developments in charging infrastructure planning in India. Also, the status of installed charging stations is examined. Developing appropriate charging stations are associated with several challenges, which are also highlighted to provide guidance to public and private entities that can be adopted in their respective business model. As India has the second largest population and is the seventh largest country in the world, the EV adoption rate of India is considerably low compared to other countries; for India, there is a long way to match the growth rate of EV adoption. Hence it becomes essential to develop a robust and suitable charging infrastructure to promote the sale and use of EVs in India.

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    Assessing and mapping soil erosion risk zone in Ratlam District, central India
    Sunil SAHA, Debabrata SARKAR, Prolay MONDAL
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 373-390.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.005
    Abstract216)   HTML5)    PDF (3236KB)(48)      

    Evaluation of physical and quantitative data of soil erosion is crucial to the sustainable development of the environment. The extreme form of land degradation through different forms of erosion is one of the major problems in the sub-tropical monsoon-dominated region. In India, tackling soil erosion is one of the major geo-environmental issues for its environment. Thus, identifying soil erosion risk zones and taking preventative actions are vital for crop production management. Soil erosion is induced by climate change, topographic conditions, soil texture, agricultural systems, and land management. In this research, the soil erosion risk zones of Ratlam District was determined by employing the Geographic Information System (GIS), Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and machine learning algorithms (Random Forest and Reduced Error Pruning (REP) tree). RUSLE measured the rainfall eosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), length of slope and steepness (LS), land cover and management (C), and support practices (P) factors. Kappa statistic was used to configure model reliability and it was found that Random Forest and AHP have higher reliability than other models. About 14.73% (715.94 km2) of the study area has very low risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 0.00-7.00×103 kg/(hm2·a), while about 7.46% (362.52 km2) of the study area has very high risk to soil erosion, with an average soil erosion rate of 30.00×103-48.00×103 kg/(hm2·a). Slope, elevation, stream density, Stream Power Index (SPI), rainfall, and land use and land cover (LULC) all affect soil erosion. The current study could help the government and non-government agencies to employ developmental projects and policies accordingly. However, the outcomes of the present research also could be used to prevent, monitor, and control soil erosion in the study area by employing restoration measures.

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    Is there regional convergence between Morocco and its OECD partner countries in terms of well-being?
    Ilyes BOUMAHDI, Nouzha ZAOUJAL
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 81-95.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.004
    Abstract54)   HTML5)    PDF (473KB)(33)      

    Morocco wants its 12 regions to play the role as the main lever of its public policies to initiate harmonized spatial multidimensional development. In the context of this goal and Morocco’s openness over the past two decades to bilateral and multilateral cooperation in an effort toward regional integration, this article studies the convergence of 389 regions in 36 countries (Morocco and 35 of its partner member countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)) between 2000 and 2019 in terms of well-being. To this end, we considered the territorial dimension of β-convergence models for well-being and its four domains (economic, social, environmental, and governance). Then, we adapted the absolute β-convergence model by taking into account the existence of spatial heterogeneity according to five specifications of spatial models. Thus, apart from environmental domain, we found that β-convergence of regions is significant for well-being and three of its domains (economic, social, and governance). These convergences are made by a spatially autocorrelated error model (SEM). However, the speed and period of convergence are relatively low for social domain, partly explaining the very exacerbated tensions at the territorial level. The fastest convergence was achieved in governance domain, followed by economic domain. This suggests that emerging countries must pay particular attention to national public action in favor of social cohesion at the territorial level. The lack of convergence in environmental domain calls for common actions for all countries at the supranational level to protect the commons at the territorial level.

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    Spatial variability and driving factors of soil multifunctionality in drylands of China
    ZHANG Shihang, CHEN Yusen, LU Yongxing, GUO Hao, GUO Xing, LIU Chaohong, ZHOU Xiaobing, ZHANG Yuanming
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (3): 223-232.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.10.001
    Abstract273)   HTML2)    PDF (1310KB)(86)      

    Drylands are highly vulnerable to climate change and human activities. The drylands of China account for approximately 10.8% of global drylands, and China is the country most severely affected by aridity in Asia. Therefore, studying the spatial variation characteristics in soil multifunctionality (SMF) and investigating the driving factors are critical for elucidating and managing the functions of dryland ecosystems in China. Based on the environmental factors (mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), solar radiation (Srad), soil acidity (pH), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and cation exchange capacity (CEC)) and aridity from the Dataset of soil properties for land surface modeling over China, we used non-linear regression, ordinary least square (OLS) regression, structural equation model (SEM), and other analytical methods to investigate the relationships of SMF with environmental factors across different aridity levels in China. SMF in different dryland regions varied significantly and showed a patchy distribution, with SMF index values ranging from -1.21 to 2.42. Regions with SMF index values from -0.20 to 0.51 accounting for 63.0% of dryland area in China. OLS regression results revealed that environmental factors like MAP, MAT, Srad, pH, EVI, and CEC were significantly related to SMF (P<0.05). MAP and MAT were correlated to SMF at the whole aridity level (P<0.05). SEM results showed that the driving factors of SMF differed depending on the aridity level. Soil pH was the strongest driving factor of SMF when the aridity was less than 0.80 (P<0.001). Both soil CEC and EVI had a positive effect on SMF when aridity was greater than 0.80 (P<0.01), with soil CEC being the strongest driving factor. The importance ranking revealed that the relative importance contribution of soil pH to SMF was greatest when aridity was less than 0.80 (66.9%). When aridity was set to greater than 0.80, the relative importance contributions of CEC and EVI to SMF increased (45.1% and 31.9%, respectively). Our findings indicated that SMF had high spatial heterogeneity in drylands of China. The aridity threshold controlled the impact of environmental factors on SMF.

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    From theme park to cultural tourism town: Disneyization turning of tourism space in China
    Zi’ang ZHANG, Zengxian LIANG, Jigang BAO
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 156-163.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.003
    Abstract368)   HTML5)    PDF (774KB)(251)      

    Theme park development has become an important choice for tourism space development in Chinese cities, and the theming of space as well as the implied consumption symbols and cultural implications are usually viewed as examples for the development of other urban spaces, such as cultural tourism towns. The result is the Disneyization of urban tourism space. With the construction of characteristic towns being vigorously promoted throughout China, cultural tourism towns are springing up. They are typical of the “Wuzhen Town Mode” and represent the process of the Disneyization of tourism space in China. This research reflects on the evolution of the characteristics of tourism space in China. Taking the Wuzhen Town Mode as an example, this study reveals the characteristics and conversion mechanism of the Disneyization of tourism space in Chinese cities. According to this research, the Wuzhen Town Mode of the Disneyization is characterized by theming, hybrid consumption, merchandising, and performative labor. Residential function is a unique characteristic of the Disneyization of cultural tourism towns in China. Moreover, the Wuzhen Town Mode of the Disneyization is jointly motivated by the driving force of local governments, the propulsive force of tourist demand, the attractive force of the social environment, and the driving force of capital. Finally, suggestions and policy proposals are provided for the Disneyization of tourism space in China.

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    Purchase willingness of new energy vehicles: A case study in Jinan City of China
    Xueqing Tian, Qingling Zhang, Yuzhu Chi, Yu Cheng
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (1): 12-22.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.12.003
    Abstract319)   HTML7)    PDF (802KB)(143)      

    Speeding up the promotion of new energy vehicles is an important measure to optimize the energy structure, promote energy conservation and emission reduction, and develop the economy sustainability. The research uses a questionnaire survey to analyze the residents’ willingness to purchase new energy vehicles in Jinan City of China, and utilizes the binomial logistic regression model and Global Moran’s I to explain the impact of three factors (including respondents’ personal characteristics and subjective cognition, products, and social environment) on the purchase willingness of new energy vehicles. According to the survey, 75.12% of the respondents consider buying new energy vehicles in the future, but only 11.66% of the respondents know new energy vehicles well. It can be seen that the respondents in Jinan City generally have an insufficient understanding of new energy vehicles. It may lead to a decline in residents’ trust in new energy vehicles, which will in turn affect their purchase willingness. Based on the survey, we find that women who live far from the city center enjoy high incomes and have a low-carbon awareness, generally exhibit a higher willingness to purchase new energy vehicles. Spatial distribution of the purchase willingness has certain aggregation characteristics, showing a positive spatial correlation pattern. Purchase willingness has a certain positive diffusion effect in space, and areas with a higher purchase willingness have a positive driving effect on their surrounding regions. Spatial distribution of the purchase willingness can be used as one of the breakthroughs in promoting new energy vehicles. In addition, safety, price, after-sales service, and infrastructure of new energy vehicles are important determinants of people’s purchase willingness. Among the types of subsidies, financial subsidy is most effective on the residents’ purchase willingness. Our research provides an important information for the promotion of new energy vehicles in the region.

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    Evaluation of carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change in Zhengzhou City of China
    HE Jianjian, ZHANG Pengyan
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.002
    Abstract331)   HTML13)    PDF (3234KB)(123)      

    Studies on carbon emissions associated with land use and cover change (LUCC) are key to understanding the impact of human activities on regional sustainability. In this study, we analyzed the temporal and spatial changes in carbon emissions associated with LUCC for production, living, and ecological spaces in Zhengzhou City of China. Landsat remote sensing images were used to classify the land use and land cover (LULC) types in Zhengzhou City in 1988, 2001, 2009, and 2015. Carbon emissions associated with LUCC were evaluated using a spatial gradient model and the niche mechanism. It was found that during 1988-2015, carbon emissions associated with LUCC in Zhengzhou City increased by 17.1×106 t, while the carbon sink resulted from cultivated land, forests, water bodies, and unused land decreased significantly. Most of the increase in carbon emissions associated with LUCC occurred in the center of the city. The peak carbon emissions were located in the northeastern, southeastern, northwestern, and southwestern regions of Zhengzhou City, and carbon emissions varied considerably in the different spatial gradient rings over time. Among the three spaces, carbon emissions associated with LUCC were mainly affected by the living space. The population size and population urbanization rate were negatively correlated with the ecological space and positively correlated with the production and living spaces. Our results highlight that Zhengzhou City should take the new urbanization path of urban transformation development and ecological civilization construction to ensure the realization of the promised carbon emission reduction targets.

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    Land tenure security, place satisfaction and loyalty in the peri-urban area of Ibadan City, Nigeria
    Taiwo Oladapo BABALOLA
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 346-355.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.004
    Abstract174)   HTML2)    PDF (406KB)(76)      

    Land tenure security is pertinent to achieving the sustainable development agenda in cities where land is needed and useful for development purposes. Sufficient empirical research has been done to prove the importance of tenure security for investment, resilience, conservation, food security, as well as health and well-being, but it has not been clarified if and how land tenure security could adequately influence place loyalty and satisfaction with the residential environment, as it is clear that place loyalty and satisfaction are pertinent to inclusive development. Using the case of Ibadan City, the study examined how different dimensions of tenure security could determine residents’ place loyalty and satisfaction. The study employed a survey cross-sectional research design to distribute 514 structured questionnaires to household heads across 4 sampled peri-urban local government areas while 452 were retrieved for analysis. Hierarchical regression analysis model was employed to understand the association between tenure security dimensions and satisfaction (as model I) and loyalty (as model II). For model I, F=8.640, P=0.000, R=0.555, and R2=0.308 were obtained; while for model II, F=9.157, P=0.001, R=0.415, and R2=0.173 were acquired. This thus means that residents’ place loyalty and satisfaction can partly be explained by tenure security. In particular, respondents with no eviction experience, recognized property rights, and invulnerable to eviction have higher odds of being satisfied and loyal. Therefore, we recommend protection, improvement, and upgrading of land tenure security as one of the means to promote place loyalty and satisfaction, which is essential to achieving inclusive and sustainable development.

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    Impact of taxes on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Evidence from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries
    Md. Mominur RAHMAN
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (3): 235-248.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.07.001
    Abstract30)   HTML5)    PDF (724KB)(6)      

    Multiple ecological and socioeconomic problems have occurred worldwide, raising the awareness of sustainability. This study aims to examine the impact of taxes on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This research used effective average tax (EAT), tax on personal income (TPI), tax on corporate profits (TCP), and tax on goods and services (TGS) as the variables of taxes, and employed secondary data from 38 OECD countries covering 2000-2021. The study also used Breusch-Pagan Lagrange Multiplier (LM), Pesaran Scaled LM, Bias-Corrected Scaled LM, and Pesaran Cross-sectional dependence (CSD) tests to analyze the existence of cross-sectional dependency. Then, we established the stationarity of variables through second-generation panel unit root tests (Cross-sectional Augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) and Cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, and Shin (CIPS)), and confirmed the long-run cointegration of the variables by using second-generation panel cointegration test (Westerlund cointegration test). The results showed that EAT, TPI, TCP, and TGS are positively associated with SDGs. However, the change in TPI has a smaller effect on SDGs than the change in EAT or TCP or TGS. The result of panel causality indicated that EAT, TPI, and TGS have a unidirectional causal relationship with SDGs. The study also found that TCP has a bi-directional causal relationship with SDGs. Moreover, the finding indicated that the OECD countries need to focus on tax policies to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This study is based on the theory of optimal taxation (TOT), which suggests that tax systems should be designed to maximize social welfare. Finally, we suggests the importance of taking a comprehensive approach for the managers and policy-makers when analyzing the impact of taxes on SDGs.

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    Illustrating the multi-stakeholder perceptions of environmental pollution based on big data: Lessons from China
    LIU Haimeng, LIU Huaming, CHENG Yi
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 12-26.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.003
    Abstract262)   HTML7)    PDF (3719KB)(78)      

    The relationship between stakeholders and the environment influences sustainable development and human wellbeing. To illustrate the multi-stakeholder perceptions of environmental pollution in China, we interpreted a feedback loop in the perception-behavior-environment nexus from the perspective of the coupled human-environment system, measured the differences of environmental perceptions among five stakeholders (the public, government, media, companies, and scientists) and regions (including 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, with exceptions of Taiwan of China, Hong Kong of China, and Macao of China due to a lack of data) using big data, and made a comparison between the perceptions and the actual pollution situation. The results showed that the five stakeholders exhibited similar perceptions of environmental pollution at the national scale, with air pollution being of most concern, followed by water pollution and soil pollution. There were significant spatial differences in environmental perceptions. All stakeholders in the developed regions in eastern China paid relatively high attention to environmental issues, while those in the northwestern regions paid much less attention. There existed a mutual influence and interaction among the different stakeholders. More attention should be paid to air pollution in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, water pollution in Hainan Province, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Heilongjiang Province, and Jilin Province, and soil pollution in Hainan Province, Fujian Province, and Jilin Province. This paper provides a research paradigm on multi-stakeholder environmental perceptions based on big data, and the results provide a background reference for regional environmental governance.

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    Can environmental sustainability be decoupled from economic growth? Empirical evidence from Eastern Europe using the common correlated effect mean group test
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (1): 68-80.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.03.003
    Abstract52)   HTML3)    PDF (801KB)(39)      

    The European Union (EU) and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) aim to develop long-term policies for their respective member countries. Having observed increasing dangers to the environment posed by rising economic growth, they are seeking pathways to enable policy action on economic growth and environmental sustainability. Given the facts in theoretical and empirical studies, this study assessed the validity of the decoupling hypothesis by investigating asymmetricity in the relationship between environmental sustainability and economic growth in nine Eastern European countries from 1998 to 2017 using the cross-section augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) unit root, panel corrected standard error (PCSE), common correlated effect mean group (CCEMG), and Dumitrescu Hurlin causality approaches. Both population growth and drinking water are used as controlled variables. The outcomes establish strong cointegration among all the variables of interest. According to the results of CCEMG test, economic growth exerts short-term environmental degradation but has long-term environmental benefits in Eastern Europe; and population growth and drinking water exert a positive effect on environmental sustainability in both the short- and long-run. The results of Dumitrescu Hurlin causality test indicate that environmental sustainability is unidirectionally affected by economic growth. Based on these outcomes, we suggest the following policies: (1) the EU and OECD should implement member-targeted policies on economic growth and fossil-fuel use towards regulating industrial pollution, water use, and population control; and (2) the EU and OECD member countries should invest in environmental technologies through green research and development (R&D) to transform their dirty industrial processes and ensure productive energy use.

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    Use of the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model to examine sustainable agriculture in Thailand
    LIAO Xuewei, Thi Phuoc Lai NGUYEN, Nophea SASAKI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (1): 41-52.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.03.005
    Abstract238)   HTML4)    PDF (504KB)(139)      

    Sustainable agriculture plays an important role in achieving sustainable development goals with regard to food security and environmental conservation. Sustainable agriculture relies on sustainable farming practices that reduce greenhouse gas production, the wise use of local natural resources, and reductions in negative impacts on the environment and human health. Sustainable farming practices can be driven by various factors, such as the socio-environmental setting, socio-cognitive factors, agricultural institutions, and policy. This study used the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) model to examine farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the area of sustainable agriculture. It also considered the factors affecting farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Two different socio-environmental contextual settings in Surin Province (a Thai-Cambodian border province) of Thailand are considered. The results show that there are differences between the two different socio-environmental contextual settings with regard to farmers’ sustainable agricultural practice perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes. Farmers’ perceptions of environmental degradation, the number of years of agricultural experience, and agricultural policy drive farmers’ attitudes and individual sustainable practices. Another major result of the study is that individual farmers’ attitudes and practices promote collective sustainable agricultural behaviors. The implication of these findings is that it is necessary to improve the learning ability of individual farmers on the environment and sustainable agricultural practices through social learning and scientific knowledge dissemination, so as to produce sustainable collective development behaviors.

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    Changes of water chemistry from rainfall to stream flow in Obagbile Catchment, Southwest Nigeria
    Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (2): 170-181.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.07.006
    Abstract218)   HTML3)    PDF (946KB)(21)      

    Water chemistry changes when it flows through different pathways. This study aims to characterize the differences of water chemistry of five kinds of water in Obagbile Catchment including rainwater, overland flow, soil water, groundwater, and stream water, determine the changes in water chemistry that occur as the water moves from one pathway to another, and identify the factors responsible for the water chemistry changes. To do these, we collected 50 water samples from 10 heavy storms whose rainfall are equal to or more than 10 mm within an hour to test the changes of water properties across various pathways in this study. The results show that the overland flow had the highest pH and electrical conductivity (EC) and the rainwater had the lowest value of the two parameters. Ca2+, Mg2+, Clˉ, and HCOOˉ were found to have their highest concentrations in stream water; meanwhile, NO3-, NH4+, and SO42- were found to have almost same low concentrations in all the water samples. K+ was only dominant in stream water; while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was lowest in rainwater, same in overland flow, soil water, and groundwater samples, and highest in stream flow. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that for all the water samples from different pathways, two factors mainly accounted for the total variances. The two factors were related to the crustal and anthropogenic sources in rainwater suggesting that the high loadings of major cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) in rainwater samples are soil-derived. The PCA for the overland flow and soil water showed strong correlations between pH, EC, and the concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, HCOO-, and CH3COO-, while the high loadings of all the parameters and the strong correlations among each other were evident in the stream water. In conclusion, the chemical constituents found in water are also the constituents of pathways through which the water flows. The major factors responsible for the change in the physico-chemical properties of water in Obagbile Catchment are weathering and anthropogenic activities.

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    Assessment of the impact of climate change on the occurrences of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria
    Isaac Ayo OLUWATIMILEHIN, Joseph Omojesu AKERELE, Tolulope Adedoyin OLADEJI, Mojisola Hannah OMOGBEHIN, Godwin ATAI
    Regional Sustainability    2022, 3 (4): 309-318.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2022.11.007
    Abstract252)   HTML7)    PDF (1036KB)(25)      

    This study examined the impact of climate change on the occurrence of malaria, pneumonia, meningitis, and cholera in Lokoja City, Nigeria, with the aim of investigating the spatial distribution and prevalence of the four kinds of diseases as well as the coping strategies of people in the area. We collected the rainfall and temperature data of Lokoja City during 2000-2020 from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the medical records data of the four kinds of diseases from the Kogi State Ministry of Health. We also conducted a semi-structured questionnaire of 250 residents, who have experienced one of these diseases, to investigate their coping strategies with these diseases. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to research the relationship between the climate parameters and cases of diseases. The result showed annual variations in climatic parameters with R2 values of 0.0557, 0.0009, and 0.4915 for rainfall, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature, respectively. A positive and significant relationship were observed between maximum temperature and malaria (r=0.80), rainfall and malaria (r=0.54), minimum temperature and meningitis (r=0.64), as well as rainfall and cholera (r=0.66) at P<0.05 level. For the regression analysis R2= 0.71, 0.50, and 0.52 for malaria, cholera, and meningitis, respectively at P<0.05 level. During 2000-2020, cases of malaria were highest in Ward A with 15,422, while 715 cases of pneumonia were highest in Kupa North Ward. In Ward A, 3787 cases of cholera were recorded to be the highest, while cases of meningitis were highest in Kupa North Ward with 2383 cases. Investigation revealed that malaria is more common in the wet season, while cholera and meningitis cases were highest in the dry season. The study revealed that the most practiced coping strategy is the use of medications by about 90% of the respondents. More studies are recommended in the study area to establish a causal link between climate change and disease occurrence, and intervention from government in form of prevention and control programmes should be vigorously implemented.

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    Risk assessment of transnational oil investment in Central Asia using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method
    Haitao Ma, Zhan Sun, Chuanglin Fang
    Regional Sustainability    2020, 1 (1): 11-19.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.06.002
    Abstract234)   HTML11)    PDF (820KB)(2141)      

    Central Asia (including five countries: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan) is rich in oil reserves and has become one of the most important target regions for global oil investment. The construction of the Silk Road Economic Belt has prompted Central Asia to look outwards for more collaborations in the oil industry. China’s need for oil investment in Central Asia has also increased significantly. This research established a comprehensive index system for assessing the risks of transnational oil investment in Central Asia. The system incorporated political, regulatory, economic, social, and infrastructural indices. Based on the Delphi method and fuzzy comprehension evaluation method, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed and analyzed the risks of transnational oil investment in Central Asia. The results indicate that the risk score for regulatory risk was highest with the value of 6.1670, indicating a high risk level in transnational oil investment, followed by economic, social, political, and infrastructural risk indices. Of the 18 secondary risk indices calculated, there were seven indices with the probability of high risk occurrence exceeded 30.0% and the descending order was as follows: establishment of mining rights; host country intervention in operations; taxing system; stability of regulations; war and turmoil; labor capital; and ethnic, cultural, and religious differences. These seven critical risks should be watched closely and avoided during transnational oil investment in Central Asia. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the potential risks of investing oil in Central Asia. The findings demonstrate the causes of these risks and provide a scientific basis for reasonably avoiding oil investment risk and improving investment benefits for both host and investing countries.

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    Social development and living environment changes in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau and contiguous regions during the late prehistoric period
    Huihui Cao, Guanghui Dong
    Regional Sustainability    2020, 1 (1): 59-67.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2020.09.001
    Abstract140)   HTML5)    PDF (1228KB)(119)      

    The relationship between the evolution of human societies and their living environments has been discussed intensively in recent decades. It is important to understand the patterns and mechanisms of human–environment interaction and evolution in order to cope with rapidly changing environments in the modern world. We reviewed the results of dating, archaeobotanical, and zooarchaeological studies from 139 prehistoric sites in the Northeast Tibetan Plateau (NETP) and contiguous regions (NETP-CR: i.e., the Hexi Corridor and western margin of the Chinese Loess Plateau) and compared them with paleoenvironmental records to study variations in spatiotemporal patterns of social development in the area and their relationships with climate and vegetation changes. Our results show that hunter-gatherer groups occupied vast areas of the NETP at low intensities during ~15,000–5500 BP (years before present). This was directly related to forest cover and climate change. An increase in temperature and precipitation turnover of vegetation from desert steppe to alpine meadow/subalpine shrub, and recovery of animal population on the Tibetan Plateau created more food resources and space for hunter-gatherers. Millet farmers settled extensively below 2500 m a.s.l. (meters above sea level) in the NETP-CR between ~5500 and 3600 BP, and might have coexisted with hunting groups above 2500 m a.s.l. via subsistence exchange. The distribution of human settlements during that period was affected by climate change, with the relatively warm and wet climate promoting the expansion of millet agriculture to the NETP-CR during 5500–4500 BP, while climate deterioration caused humans to retreat to lower altitudes. During 3600–2200 BP, a range of livelihoods emerged in different regions of the NETP-CR. This was promoted by early trans-Eurasian exchange and the development of an agro-pastoral economy that utilized cold-tolerant crops and livestock. This eventually promoted the expansion of permanent human settlements to high-altitude areas in the NETP. This study found that human societies adopted various strategies to adapt to the changing living environment throughout late prehistoric times in the NETP-CR. The results provide a long-term perspective on the trajectory of regional socio-environmental co-evolution.

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    Trade-offs and synergies of climate change adaptation strategies among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review
    Devinia Princess AKINYI, Stanley Karanja NG’ANG’A, Evan GIRVETZ
    Regional Sustainability    2021, 2 (2): 130-143.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2021.05.002
    Abstract217)   HTML7)    PDF (673KB)(111)      

    Climate change adaptation strategies provide a cushion for smallholder farmers, especially in sub-Saharan Africa against the risks posed by climate hazards such as droughts and floods. However, the decision-making process in climate adaptation is complex. To better understand the dynamics of the process, we strive to answer this question: what are the potential trade-offs and synergies related to decision-making and implementation of climate adaptation strategies among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa region? A systematic literature review methodology was used through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement with the four-stage inclusion/exclusion criteria to identify the literature from selected databases (Scopus and Google Scholar). The climate adaptation strategies are organized into five broad categories (crop management, risk management, soil/land management, water management, and livestock management strategies). Evidence suggests that potential trade-offs may arise concerning added costs, additional labor requirements, and competition among objectives or available resources. The synergies, on the other hand, arise from implementing two or more adaptation strategies concurrently in respect of increased productivity, resilience, yield stability, sustainability, and environmental protection. Trade-offs and synergies may also differ among the various adaptation strategies with minimum/zero tillage, comparatively, presenting more trade-offs. The development and promotion of low-cost adaptation strategies and complementary climate adaptation options that minimize the trade-offs and maximize the synergies are suggested. Skills and knowledge on proper implementation of climate change adaptation strategies are encouraged, especially at the local farm level.

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    Measuring the agricultural sustainability of India: An application of Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model
    Surendra Singh JATAV, Kalu NAIK
    Regional Sustainability    2023, 4 (3): 218-234.   DOI: 10.1016/j.regsus.2023.05.006
    Abstract25)   HTML2)    PDF (446KB)(5)      

    Analyzing agricultural sustainability is essential for designing and assessing rural development initiatives. However, accurately measuring agricultural sustainability is complicated since it involves so many different factors. This study provides a new suite of quantitative indicators for assessing agricultural sustainability at regional and district levels, involving environmental sustainability, social security, and economic security. Combining the Pressure-State-Response (PSR) model and indicator approach, this study creates a composite agricultural sustainability index for the 14 mainstream agro-climatic regions of India. The results of this study show that the Trans-Gengatic Plain Region (TGPR) ranks first in agricultural sustainability among India's 14 mainstream agro-climatic regions, while the Eastern Himalayan Region (EHR) ranks last. Higher livestock ownership, cropping intensity, per capita income, irrigation intensity, share of institutional credit, food grain productivity, crop diversification, awareness of minimum support price, knowledge sharing with fellow farmers, and young and working population, as well as better transportation facilities and membership of agricultural credit societies are influencing indicators responsible for higher agricultural sustainability in TGPR compared with EHR. Although, the scores of environmental sustainability indicators of EHR are quite good, its scores of social and economic security indicators are fairly low, putting it at the bottom of the rank of agricultural sustainability index among the 14 mainstream agro-climatic regions in India. This demonstrates the need of understanding agricultural sustainability in relation to social and economic dimensions. In a nation as diverse and complicated as India, it is the social structure that determines the health of the economy and environment. Last but not least, the sustainability assessment methodology may be used in a variety of India's agro-climatic regions.

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